The Cordus theory is a prototype new theory of physics. It proposes that particles, such as the photon and electron, have finer internal structures. It makes specific predictions about the structures at the sub-particle level. This concept is then used to develop a mechanics that interprets and explains multiple phenomena in physics.
Predicted particle structure
The sub-particle structure is predicted to comprise two reactive ends (as opposed to a single point). These ends are some geometric separation apart and connected by a fibril. The fibril coordinates the two reactive ends, but does not itself interact with matter. The reactive ends energise at a frequency, and emit discrete forces when they do. The number and direction of these discrete forces determine the identity of the particle (electron, neutrino, etc.). The discrete forces are proposed to be connected to form a flux tube that propagates out into space. The lineal action, bending, and torsion of these discrete forces within their flux tube is proposed as the basis for the electrostatic, magnetic, and gravitational fields respectively. The image shows the structure of the electron per this theory.
This theory falls into the category of a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design, because it proposes that particles have internal structure (hidden-variables) and it supports entanglement (non-local behaviour). It has an additional mechanism for the emission of discrete fields. Hidden-variable theories are well-known in physics, and there are many types. For a time, during the early development of quantum theory a century ago, it appeared to physicists such as Einstein that hidden variable theories were likely to be the correct way forward. However that was not to be: quantum mechanics grew into the quantitatively powerful theory it is today superior, and at the same time the hidden variable theories languished because they were unsuccessful. The hidden variable theories tended to be narrowly focussed and were unable to generalise to physics as a whole. The most well-known of these theories is the de Broglie Bohm theory. As a consequence of poor explanatory power, the NLHV theories no longer feature in the discourse of physics.
The Cordus theory is different to the other NLHV theories of the past in that (a) it generalises to multiple areas of physics, (b) it explains phenomena that quantum mechanics does not, e.g. asymmetrical genesis and stability of the atomic nucleus, and (c) it has multiple publications in peer-reviewed journals.
The theory was derived from the application of conceptual design and systems engineering principles. These were applied to determine the requisite sub-structures that would be sufficient to explain the photon behaviour in the double-slit device. Hence the predicted structures are based on logical necessity rather than arbitrary hypotheses.
It is called the Cordus theory because of its proposed linear structures. This structure is termed a particule where it is necessary to distinguish it from the zero-dimensional point particle of quantum mechanics.
Outcomes and explanatory power
The theory explains multiple physical phenomena across a range of particle, wave, and cosmological effects. Its current coverage includes the following. Items marked * include difficult areas of physics.
Particle identity: Predicts the internal structures of the electron , antielectron (positron) , photon , and neutrino species .
Wave-particle duality: Provides an explanation of the double slit device based on physical realism 
Optics: Provides a derivation of optical laws from a particle perspective .
Entanglement: Explains qualitatively how entanglement operates .*
Mass-energy equivalence: Provides a mechanics for pair production (creation of electron and antielectron from a photon) . Explains the difference between matter and antimatter in terms of particle structure . Explains the annihilation process including the difference between otho- and para-positronium decay rates (ortho and para refer to spin combinations of the bound electron and anti-electron/positron) .
Photon emission: Describes a physical process whereby a photon is emitted from an electron  .*
Entropy and Time: Explains the origin of irreversibility, entropy, and Brownian motion . Offers a new theory of time as an emergent property of matter .
Cosmology: Explains the origin of the finite speed of light, and predicts that the speed is not constant and explains why . This means it is a variable speed of light (VSL) theory. Explains the structure of the vacuum and the cosmological boundary .
Provides a mechanism explaining asymmetrical baryogenesis in terms of a newly predicted decay path for remanufacture of the antielectron to the proton .*
Derives the formulations for the Lorentz, relativistic time-dilation, and relativistic Doppler from a particle basis .
Nuclear mechanics: Predicts how the strong interaction operates and how nucleons are bonded together .* Predicts the structure of atomic nuclei and explains (qualitatively) the stability for nuclides H to Ne [19, 20].*
Explains the decay processes , the reasons for the instability of the free neutron . Develops a universal decay equation for nucleons, and predicts that decay rates are variable .
Explains the selective spin characteristics of neutrinos whereby the direction of spin is correlated with the matter-antimatter species *
The theory is conjectural in nature and is considered a proto-theory of physics, rather than an established one. The theory is conceptual , and hence much of the theory is not expressed mathematically. Consequently the theory lacks the quantitative ability of QM.
Contrast with existing theories
Quantum mechanics (QM) proposes that particles are zero-dimensional points, and that properties such as spin, charge, and mass, are merely mathematical properties or ‘intrinsic properties’. Furthermore QM proposes that many particle properties are stochastic. In contrast the Cordus theory proposes that particles have sub-structure in the form of reactive ends and discrete forces, and that these form a physical basis for spin, charge, and mass etc. Furthermore the theory proposes that there is an underlying determinism that, on a sufficiently course scale of view and long enough time period, manifests as the stochastic nature of QM.
String theory proposes that there exists a mathematical formulation that fully describes the state of a particle. It requires multiple dimensions or variables, which may be 9, 11, 25 etc., depending on the variant of the theory. String theory does not identify which of multiple theories are the correct one, nor does it associate its dimensions with physical structures. In contrast the Cordus theory proposes that 11 composite variables based on physical structures are sufficient to describe any particle. The Cordus theory predicts a string-like physical structure in the form of the fibril, but the two theories are based on different approaches.
General relativity (GR) proposes that time is a continuous dimension, and allied to the three spatial dimensions. It provides mathematical representation of the relativity of light, time dilation, gravitation, and the evolution of the cosmos. These phenomena have not been adequately described by QM, nor does GR describe particle interactions, and hence there is incongruity between these two main theories. In contrast the Cordus theory goes some way to bridging this gap, since it is able to derive several of the GR formulations from a particle basis. These include the Lorentz, the relativistic Doppler, and time dilation.
Explanation of the theory: Inner and outer structure of the Cordus particule
The basic idea is that every particule has two reactive ends, which are a small finite distance apart (span), and each behave like a particle in their interaction with the external environment. A fibril joins the reactive ends and is a persistent and dynamic structure but does not interact with matter. It provides instantaneous connectivity and synchronicity between the two reactive ends. Hence it is a non-local solution: the particule is affected by more than the fields at its nominal centre point: a principle of Wider Locality applies.
Each reactive end of the particule is energised in turn at the frequency of that particule (which is dependent on its energy). The reactive ends are energised together for the photon, and in turn for matter particules. The frequency corresponds to the de Broglie frequency. The span of the particule shortens as the frequency increases, i.e. greater internal energy is associated with faster re-energisation sequence (hence also faster emission of discrete force and thus greater mass).
When the reactive end is energised it emits discrete forces in up to three orthogonal directions. The quantity and direction of these are characteristic of the type of particule (photon, electron, proton, etc.), and the differences in these signatures is what differentiates the particules from each other. Although for convenience we use the term discrete force for these pulses, the Cordus theory requires them to have specific attributes that are better described as latent discrete prescribed displacements. This is because a second particule that subsequently receives one is prescribed to energise its reactive end in a location that is slightly displaced from where it would otherwise position itself. Thus in the Cordus theory, that which we perceive as force is fundamentally the effect of many discrete prescribed displacements acting on the particules, a kind of coercive displacement.
These discrete forces are connected in a flux line that is emitted into the external environment. (In the Cordus theory this is called a hyperfine-fibril, or hyff). Each reactive end of the particule emits three such orthogonal emissions, at least in the near-field. The exception is the photon, which only emits radially. These directions are relative to the orientation of the span, and the velocity of the particule, and termed hyperfine-fibril emission directions (HEDs). The axes are named [r] radial outwards co-linear with the span, [a] and [t] perpendicular to the span and to each other. These are so-named for consistency with previous nomenclature for the photon, but when applied to massy particules do not necessarily imply motion.
It is proposed that the quarks and other leptons follow the same pattern, though in the case of the quarks not all the emission directions [r,a,t] are filled (hence their fractional charge). In this theory electric charge is carried at 1/3 charge per discrete force, with the sign of the charge being determined by the direction of the discrete force element. So the number and nature of energised emission directions determines the overall electric charge of the particule.
The aggregation of discrete forces from multiple particules creates the electro-magneto-gravitational fields, which are thus discrete. The combined emission discrete forces makes up a 3-D composite structure. The direct lineal effect of the discrete force provides the electrostatic interaction, the bending of the flux line provides magnetism, the torsion provides gravitation interaction, and the synchronicity between discrete force elements of neighbouring particules provides the strong force. These are all carried simultaneously by the composite discrete forces as they propagates outwards in their flux tube.
Assembled massy particules compete spatially for emission directions, and may synchronise their emissions to access those spaces. Thus there is mutual negotiation in the near-field between interacting particules, based on shared geometric timing constraints. These particules interact by negotiating complementary HEDs and synchronising the emission frequencies of their discrete force elements. This synchronicity is proposed as the mechanism for the strong force and for coherent assemblies. The same mechanism, acting through coherent assemblies of electrons, explains molecular bonding. Thus the Cordus theory provides force unification by providing a model for electro-magneto-gravitational-synchronous (EMGS) interactions as consequences of lineal, bending, torsion, and synchronicity effects respectively.
The discrete force element is a 3-D composite structure, with a hand defined by the energisation sequence between the axes. This hand provides the matter/anti-matter species differentiation.
The theory is under active development at the time of writing. We are particularly interested in collaborating with pure mathematicians to develop a new mathematical representation of the complex features of the Cordus particle.
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