*The Cordus theory is a new physics theory that proposes internal structures to particles (e.g. photon, electron). This is a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design, with the addition of a mechanism for the emission of discrete fields. The theory is relevant to fundamental physics and cosmology, and has successfully provided solutions to several difficult problems in those areas. It results in solutions based on physical realism. The nature of these solutions is, at this stage, primarily conceptual, yet even so the theory provides many detailed explanations, and testable predictions. *

**New physics from the non-local sector **

The core conjecture of the Cordus theory is that all particles have inner and outer structures comprising two *reactive ends* some distance apart (*span*), connected by a *fibril* (hence *cordus*), and emitting discrete forces. This is called a *particule* to differentiate it from the zero-dimensional (0D) point idea of quantum mechanics (QM). The fibril is a persistent structure that provides instantaneous connectivity and synchronicity between the two reactive ends, but does not interact with matter. The reactive ends are energised sequentially (at the de Broglie frequency), during which they emit *discrete forces* out into the external environment. The locus of these over time defines a flux line called a *hyperfine fibril* (hence *hyff*). The discrete forces are emitted in three spatial directions (hence *hyff emission directions*, HEDs), and hence space is filled with a *fabric* of discrete forces. The quantity, direction, and arrangement of these discrete forces determine the type of *particule* and are responsible for charge, mass, matter-antimatter species differentiation, and spin. The discrete forces are responsible for the electro-magneto-gravitational and strong interactions, though the theory uses the term *synchronous interaction *in place of the strong, as this better describes the proposed nature of the interaction.

The application of this Cordus theory to a variety of phenomena shows that such internal structures elements are logically sufficient to explain fundamental physics in terms of physical realism.

## Journal Papers

The idea and its outworking is documented in the following peer-reviewed journal papers.

[1] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., Pons, A. M., and Pons, A. J., *Wave-particle duality: A conceptual solution from the cordus conjecture.* Physics Essays, 2012. **25**(1): p. 132-140. DOI: http://physicsessays.org/doi/abs/10.4006/0836-1398-25.1.132

[2] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Synchronous interlocking of discrete forces: Strong force reconceptualised in a NLHV solution *Applied Physics Research, 2013. **5**(5): p. 107-126. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n5107

[3] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Differentiation of Matter and Antimatter by Hand: Internal and External Structures of the Electron and Antielectron.* Physics Essays, 2014. **27**: p. 26-35. DOI: http://vixra.org/abs/1305.0157

[4] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Annihilation mechanisms.* Applied Physics Research 2014. **6**(2): p. 28-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n2p28

[5] Pons, D. J. and Pons, A. D., *Outer boundary of the expanding cosmos: Discrete fields and implications for the holographic principle *The Open Astronomy Journal, 2013. **6**: p. 77-89. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874381101306010077.

[6] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Time: An emergent property of matter.* Applied Physics Research, 2013. **5**(6): p. 23-47. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p23

[7] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., (2015) *Nuclear polymer explains the stability, instability, and non-existence of nuclides*. Physics Research International 2015(Article ID 651361): p. 1-19. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/651361

[8] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design.* Applied Physics Research 2013. **5**(6): p. 145-174. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145

[9] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Beta decays and the inner structures of the neutrino in a NLHV design.* Applied Physics Research, 2014. **6**(3): p. 50-63. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n3p50

[10] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Weak interaction and the mechanisms for neutron stability and decay *Applied Physics Research, 2015. **7**(1): p. 1-11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n1p1

[11] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., (2015) *Pair Production Explained in a Hidden Variable Theory.* Journal of Nuclear and Particle Physics 5(3): p. 58-69. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5923/j.jnpp.20150503.03.

[12] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Asymmetrical genesis by remanufacture of antielectrons.* Journal of Modern Physics, 2014. **5**: p. 1980-1994. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2014.517193.

[13] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Asymmetrical neutrino induced decay of nucleons *Applied Physics Research, 2015. **7**(2): p. 1-13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n2p1 or http://vixra.org/abs/1412.0279.

[14] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., *Hidden variable theory supports variability in decay rates of nuclides *Applied Physics Research 2015. **7**(3): p. 18-29. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n3p18

[15] Pons, D. J., *Inner process of Photon emission and absorption*. Applied Physics Research, 2015. 7(4 ): p. 14-26. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n4p24

[16] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2016). Speed of light as an emergent property of the fabric. Applied Physics Research, 8(3), 111-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v8n3p111

[17] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2016). Energy conversion mechanics for photon emission per non-local hidden-variable theory. Journal of Modern Physics, 7(10), 1049-1067. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2016.710094

[18] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2016). Entropy at the level of individual particles: Analysis of Maxwell’s Agent with a hidden-variable theory. Journal of Modern Physics, 7(10), 1277-1295. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2016.710113

[19] Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2017). A physical basis for entanglement in a non-local hidden variable theory *Journal of Modern Physics, 8*(8), 1257-1274 doi: https://doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2017.88082 or http://file.scirp.org/Html/10-7503127_77506.htm or http://vixra.org/abs/1502.0103

Additional preliminary papers and work-in-progress are available on the vixra physics archive (list).

**Basic principles: **Inner and outer structure of the Cordus particule

The basic idea is that every particule has two reactive ends, which are a small finite distance apart (span), and each behave like a particle in their interaction with the external environment. A fibril joins the reactive ends and is a persistent and dynamic structure but does not interact with matter. It provides instantaneous connectivity and synchronicity between the two reactive ends. Hence it is a non-local solution: the particule is affected by more than the fields at its nominal centre point: a principle of Wider Locality applies.

Each reactive end of the particule is energised in turn at the frequency of that particule (which is dependent on its energy). The reactive ends are energised together for the photon, and in turn for matter particules. The frequency corresponds to the de Broglie frequency. The span of the particule shortens as the frequency increases, i.e. greater internal energy is associated with faster re-energisation sequence (hence also faster emission of discrete force and thus greater mass).

When the reactive end is energised it emits discrete forces in up to three orthogonal directions. The quantity and direction of these are characteristic of the type of particule (photon, electron, proton, etc.), and the differences in these signatures is what differentiates the particules from each other. Although for convenience we use the term discrete force for these pulses, the Cordus theory requires them to have specific attributes that are better described as latent discrete prescribed displacements. This is because a second particule that subsequently receives one is prescribed to energise its reactive end in a location that is slightly displaced from where it would otherwise position itself. Thus in the Cordus theory, that which we perceive as force is fundamentally the effect of many discrete prescribed displacements acting on the particules, a kind of coercive displacement.

These discrete forces are connected in a flux line that is emitted into the external environment. (In the Cordus theory this is called a hyperfine-fibril, or hyff). Each reactive end of the particule emits three such orthogonal hyff, at least in the near-field. The exception is the photon, which only emits radially. These directions are relative to the orientation of the span, and the velocity of the particule, and termed hyperfine-fibril emission directions (HEDs). The axes are named [r] radial outwards co-linear with the span, [a] and [t] perpendicular to the span and to each other. These are so-named for consistency with our previous nomenclature for the photon, but when applied to massy particules do not necessarily imply motion.

It is proposed that the quarks and other leptons follow the same pattern, though in the case of the quarks not all the hyff emission directions [r,a,t] are filled (hence their fractional charge). In this theory electric charge is carried at 1/3 charge per discrete force, with the sign of the charge being determined by the direction of the discrete force element. So the number and nature of energised HEDs determines the overall electric charge of the particule.

The aggregation of discrete forces from multiple particules creates the EMG fields, which are thus discrete. The combined emission discrete forces makes up a 3-D composite structure. The direct lineal effect of the discrete force provides the electrostatic interaction, the bending of the hyff flux line provides magnetism, the torsion provides gravitation interaction, and the synchronicity between discrete force elements of neighbouring particules provides the strong force. These are all carried simultaneously by the composite discrete force element as it propagates outwards on the hyff flux.

Assembled massy particules compete spatially for emission directions, and may synchronise their emissions to access those spaces. Thus there is mutual negotiation in the near-field between interacting particules, based on shared geometric timing constraints. These particules interact by negotiating complementary HEDs and synchronising the emission frequencies of their discrete force elements. This synchronicity is proposed as the mechanism for the strong force and for coherent assemblies. The same mechanism, acting through coherent assemblies of electrons, explains molecular bonding. Thus the Cordus theory provides force unification by providing a model for electro-magneto-gravitational-synchronous (EMGS) interactions as consequences of lineal, bending, torsion, and synchronicity effects respectively.

The discrete force element is a 3-D composite structure, with a hand defined by the energisation sequence between the axes. This hand provides the matter/anti-matter species differentiation.

**How is this helpful?**

The wider Cordus theory has large-scale coherence and explanatory power. It can explain many phenomena including wave-particle duality, entanglement, optical laws [1], electro-magnetic-gravitation forces, the strong force [2], time [3], the Table of nuclides [4], horizon aspects of cosmology [5], and the difference between matter and antimatter [6]. Those are what the peer-reviewed papers cover, and there are explanations for many other phenomena in the archive papers.

The Cordus theory provides answers to many of the deep *why* questions of physics, in ways that quantum mechanics is unable. All of the following have explanations in the Cordus theory.

Areas where there are integration problems in conventional physics. Cordus addresses all of these with a radically new conceptual framework that provides a logically consistent description across all the effects.

## The Methodology

In this project we applied systems engineering and design to foundational questions in physics. These are methods used in engineering and creative new product design. Here we applied them in a gedanken (thought) experiment to infer the set of internal features of fundamental particles that are necessary and sufficient (the principle of requisite variability) to explain physical phenomena, and then to synthesise solutions of wide-ranging logical consistency. The design that emerged is a specific non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution, which is called the Cordus theory. It is an unorthodox new mechanics for foundational physics, which conceptually subsumes quantum mechanics and general relativity. It provides qualitative explanations to many puzzling phenomena in fundamental physics and cosmology, within one large logically consistent framework.

## Is this a valid approach?

This new theory purports to provide a solution based on physical realism, using finer-scale (covert) structures. This is similar to a hidden variable solution with discrete fields. Any concept based on hidden-variables will be challenged, and therefore a brief justification is provided as to why this approach should be considered scientifically sound. It is generally known that the Bell type inequalities preclude local hidden-variable solutions. They do not preclude non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solutions: this is not contentious. However the non-local sector has not been productive, since it has been difficult to find candidate solutions in this area. The only historical candidate of note is the de-Broglie-Bohm theory of the pilot-wave, but this is still limited in its application to particle-locus situations, and has poor relevance to wider physics.

It is notable that the other theories of fundamental physics also have their equivalents of ‘hidden’ variables. Thus quantum mechanics has its ‘intrinsic’ variables (such as ‘spin’ and charge) for which it is unable to provide any deeper explanation. Similarly string/M theory has its extra ‘dimensions’ which are presumed to be hidden, but also unexplained. So there cannot be any objection on philosophical grounds of implausibility to the idea of covert variables, since all theories have them.

**Implications for orthodox physics**

Superficially, the Cordus theory might appear to be contrary to quantum mechanics. Actually it is more that the Cordus theory conceptually subsumes QM. The probabilistic wave-function of QM is now interpreted as a statistical approximation of a deeper behaviour. This means that all QM’s quantitative machinery can be left intact, at least at the level at which matter can be approximated as 0-D points. However the Cordus theory rejects the Copenhagen interpretation, accepts and explains the concept of spatial superposition, but rejects temporal superposition. Hence it also rejects the many worlds interpretation. The Cordus theory is not an interpretation of QM, but a re-conceptualisation of what the next deeper level of physics might look like. It is a physics beyond the standard model.

Cosmology: The theory suggests that the outer boundary of the universe only contains information about the genesis epoch, with successively concentric inner boundaries coding for the state of the universe at later times. It does not support the idea that a single cosmological boundary completely codes for up-to-date information on every particule in the universe [5]. The theory states that time is an emergent property of matter, rather than a dimension [3]. Hence the theory rejects the notion of spacetime, and suggests that both Newtonian mechanics and general relativity are macroscopic approximations of a deeper discrete field structure.

The theory reconceptualises fundamental physics and shows that NLHV designs have the ability to give plausible and logically consistent solutions to profoundly difficult problems where orthodox physics is at an impasse. QM after a hundred years of trying still can’t explain gravitation, time, irreversibility, or the table of nuclides – which this theory can. It shows that hidden-variable solutions, which have otherwise been all but rejected by orthodox physics, still have the potential to surprise.

If the Cordus theory is correct, then the implications are that the next physics, that which provides unification of the fundamental forces and a theory of everything, will be from the NLHV sector. It is not to be expected that quantum mechanics or the wave-function could be generalised to achieve a ToE because the QM mathematics is predicated on a stochastic approximation of what the Cordus theory asserts is a deeper determinism. So this implies that QM will not be the way forward, not even a modification thereof.

Dirk Pons

Christchurch, New Zealand,

2011, Updated: November 2013, April 2014, October 2014, June 2015, July 2017

*Full article [pdf] available: http://vixra.org/abs/1104.0015
*

#1 by

jasperon April 11, 2011 - 6:58 amgood idea, could be a slightly disruptive

#2 by

Daveon November 16, 2011 - 6:59 pmA most fascinating and commendable project Pons’!

Not surprising from the man who insisted on calculating the coefficient of lift of a Lammergeier circling above a hiking party in the Drakensberg. 😉

I hope to be back to read in more depth and I do hope it is disruptive.

#3 by Leo Vuyk on June 2, 2014 - 12:17 am

Dirk! Your real fermion and even photon particles are very interesting

#4 by Dirk Pons on June 4, 2014 - 7:42 pm

Thanks Leo. The exciting part is being able to start with the basic proton and neutron, and build up to explain the atomic nucleus. (See the work on the table of nuclides). Our solution may or may not be the correct one, but in this regard at least it currently has better explanatory power than the orthodox models like the liquid drop, magic numbers, SEMF (which model rather than explain things).

Good luck with your own theory and gedanken experiments.

#5 by Leo Vuyk on June 13, 2014 - 3:32 am

Hi Dirk,

about magicnumbers I recently thought about magic number nr 34, see:

The New Nuclear Magic Number (34) Explained by the Polar

Coaxial Ring System of Quantum FFF Theory.

http://vixra.org/pdf/1310.0101v3.pdf

#6 by Dirk Pons on June 14, 2014 - 9:49 am

Hi Leo, I like the idea that nucleons are related together someway, as opposed to the liquid drop and other models that portray the nucleus as a bag of points or pairs of points. Reason being that the stable nuclides tend towards requiring n>p so the obvious logical conclusion is that the neutrons must be doing something inside the nucleus, and to do something they need to be interacting in some type of structured way.

Your model has them in rings, which looks a good start.

Personally I am sceptical about Magic Numbers generally. There is a good chance they are simply artefacts of the model used. Anyway, when I look at the table of nuclides (https://www-nds.iaea.org/relnsd/vcharthtml/VChartHTML.html) I don’t see overwhelming evidence with my own eyes for any special stability of nuclides with these number of nucleons. Furthermore, the n>p relationship does not support the principle that a nuclide should be stable if either p or n was a specific ‘magic’ number’. I suspect Magic Numbers are merely spurious statistical correlation,

Good luck with your developments.

regards

Dirk

#7 by

Charleson June 23, 2017 - 8:03 amSelf-Similar Pattern of Right Trapezoid “Seed” provides an 8 nucleon increase from element shell to element shell. Matrix is revealed showing sequential flow of the stable nuclides as well as isomer paternization. The magic numbers are the jump points of this flow or better, two flows creating two reactive ends within, attached at the hip. There is a non-local vortex (neutron rich) found on this graph. Decay chains represent frequency while high energy cosmic rays are the input, the potential. Although, not instantaneous but approximately 2 k faster speed of light. I believe concept could be crafted to fit.

#8 by

Charleson June 23, 2017 - 8:21 amMagic Numbers 34 and 36 are jump points.