Archive for March, 2013

Arrow of time

The ‘arrow of time’ refers to the one-way nature of time. Special and General relativity considers time to be a dimension, as in ‘spacetime’, in which case we should be able to go forward and backward in time, just like we can in the x, y, and z directions of space. But we can’t. Time does not behave like a full dimension. True, we move forward in time, but it is more that time drags us onwards than us voluntary moving forward. Nor can we move backwards in time. We can’t even stay still! We are forced forward along.

So, where does this irreversibility arise? After all, the fundamental physics says that it should be a two-way effect. This is one of the unsolved problems of physics, and has occupied many physicists, thermodynamicists, and philosophers. To be sure, there are a number of solutions, but they are only partial and there is no complete solution.

Here is the solution we have found within the Cordus theory. Remember that the Cordus conjecture is a non-local hidden-variable solution, which means that it proposes that particles have internal structures. By comparision all of conventional physics including quantum mechanics is buit on the assumption that particles are merely zero dimensional points without substance.

The Cordus theory for time proposes that Decoherence is the root cause of the Arrow.

Coherence, according to the Cordus theory, is two  or more particles synchronising their frequencies using the strong force, and this also requires a particular and consistent geometric arrangement. Thus time in coherent bodies, like superfluids and Bose-Einstein condensates, is proposed to be one single time pulse for the whole body.  However, when decoherence occurs, the individual particules are no longer synchronised and instead bond with the much less precise electrostatic force.

Specifically, we propose that the Arrow of Time arises because decoherence causes a time delay to be inserted into the functional interac

The Cordus theory explains the difference between coherent and decoherent (discoherent) objects. It then uses this to construct a theory for time, including the irreversibility thereof (arrow of time).

The Cordus theory explains the difference between coherent and decoherent (discoherent) objects. It then uses this to construct a theory for time, including the irreversibility thereof (arrow of time). (Click to see larger image)

tion of two or more domains (objects) of matter – whether or not those domains are individually coherent. This because the frequencies of the fundamental particules differ, so the faster oscillating domain will have to mark more ticks (hence more of its local time) before the slower responds. Since there is geometric separation, however small, then the finite speed of field propagation (c, speed of light) adds a further time delay. Consequently the one domain generally has done something different, e.g. responded to a third domain, before the second has fully responded. Therefore getting domains back into their initial positions becomes unlikely and statistically impossible as the number of participating domains increases. So what happens stays happened, and does not naturally self-repair. We sum this up as follows:

Decoherent assembly time is irreversible, hence the arrow of time arises at this level. This is because  the interaction between subassemblies is practically irreversible due to intervening changes, propagation delays, and the complexity of large number of participating particules. This is also where and why entropy arises.

Hence classical mechanics and decoherence arise at the same point in the assembly tree of matter. The macroscopic perception of time arises at the same point, as does entropy.

While reversibility seems feasible at simple levels, we never see this for macroscopic bodies. This is because such bodies are decoherent. More accurately, their relationship with their external environment is decoherent even if their internal bonding arrangements are coherent.

Macroscopic bodies invariably have decoherent relationships between them. Such bodies, regardless of whether they are internally governed by coherent or decoherent relationships (bonds), interact inelastically with their environment, in that such bodies do not return to precisely their initial states. Inability for one body to return thereby means that all the other bodies in the accessible universe cannot either, because the fabric of background discrete forces has been changed.

Read more about the Cordus time theory here:

Pons, D.J. (2013) What really is time? A multiple-level ontological theory for time as a property of matter. vixra, 1-40 DOI:


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How does time-dilation work?

Schematic representation of asymmetric velocit...

Schematic representation of asymmetric velocity time dilation. The animation represents motion as mapped in a Minkowski space-time diagram, with two dimensions of space, (the horizontal plane) and position in time vertically. The circles represent clocks, counting lapse of proper time. The Minkowski coordinate system is co-moving with the non-accelerating clock. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

We have an alternative way to explain this effect.

First, some background. Time-dilation is when clocks at different locations run at different speeds,  because of the different conditions at the two locations. Specifically, time passes slower in regions of  higher gravity (and faster in lower gravity). Likewise time runs slower for systems with higher acceleration, and faster in lower acceleration.

This has nothing to do with errors in the clocks. Nor does it matter what type of clock is used, mechanical or atomic. Instead time really does run differently, and it affects life itself. It is somewhat weird to think that your feet (which are in a slightly higher gravitational field) age slower than your head, but nonetheless your body still holds together! OK, the differences are not great, but it is the principle that counts. And the twin-paradox is downright spooky too.

The usual explanations for this involve the Lorentz equations, which allow the effect to be represented mathematically and quantified. But a deep explanation of what *is* time dilation is still lacking. It’s thought to be a property of spacetime, but that is only a partial explanation as spacetime itself is a mathematical model.

Moving beyond mathematical models and into ontological explanations is what the Cordus conjecture does well, and here again we have an alternative explanation. This offers an explanation of how time-dilation occurs at the subatomic level and then scales up to chemical bonds and ultimately to the mechanics of moving clock-hands and the physiology of living bodies.

For a start, we accept that time dilation does occur, and we accept also that atomic clocks do show a physical representation of that effect (as opposed to some other effect). Then we apply the Cordus model, whereby each particule has two ends which are energised in turn at its frequency. Now, (this next bit is important) energisation involves pushing discrete forces out into the external environment. So the frequency at which  this happens is affected by the conditions in the external environment. That external environment is the 3D world beyond the particule, and it does not matter if it is only a vacuum. (The Cordus fabric is the substitute concept for the spacetime of general relativity).

The external environment is what we call the fabric, and it comprises the discrete forces of all the other particules in the observable universe. All of which are likewise trying to push out discrete forces at their own individual frequencies. So what this Cordus theory offers is a way to understand the causality from the inner workings of the particle (the hidden-variables), to the discrete forces being produced at a frequency, to the cumulative effect (fields) of many particules affecting each other. The important insight provided by the Cordus theory is that the causality works in the reverse direction too. Thus the fabric, which is the cumulative effect of the discrete forces of many particules, has a way to cause the frequency of one particule to change. If we also adopt the Cordus idea that frequency *is* time for the particule concerned, then an explanation for time dilation is immediately  available.  Here it is:

The Cordus theory of time provides a mechanism whereby the external environment can push back in and affect the frequency of the particule. The proposed mechanism is as follows. An encounter with greater fabric density causes the frequency of a particule to slow down, hence time runs slower. This is because the high density of external discrete forces makes it difficult for the particule to emit its own discrete forces > emission is retarded >  energisation of reactive end is delayed > frequency lengthens.

It is known from general relativity that a body experiences time dilation in any of the following three situations: relativistic velocity, or acceleration, or in a high gravitation field. According to the Cordus time theory, all these are situations of  greater fabric density: the first because the fast-moving particule is at a speed approaching that of the fabric itself and therefore emission of the particule’s discrete forces is resisted (from the perspective of the particule, the external fabric is saturated),  the second because the accelerating particule emits discrete forces which it then moves into, thus creating its own locally high fabric density, and the third because high gravitation field is intrinsically a high external fabric density. In all these situations higher fabric density causes slowing of time. So Cordus also provides a single underlying mechanism for why these three situations are equivalent.

So to summarise, we have a mechanism to explain why the frequency of a particule is affected by velocity, acceleration, or gravitational field. How then does time dilation occur? Well, that’s also easy to explain, though it needs another piece of the Cordus theory. This is that the frequency of a particle determines the moments in time at which its discrete forces are available to interact with other particules. Particules only interact via their discrete forces. Those interactions are the basis for the strong force, chemical bonds, and the electro-magnetic-gravitational forces. (Cordus also provides a theory for the unification of the forces/interactions.) In turn these interactions determine the atomic structure, chemistry, kinetics and kinematics of the particule. And physiology is built on chemistry.

So anything, like fabric density,  that changes the frequency of a particule automatically changes the frequency of all of the mechanics, chemistry, and even life processes, with which that particule is engaged. This is what the fabric does, and it does it to whole assemblies of matter at once. Higher fabric density slows down the frequencies of all the particules in the object in that volume of space. And since, according to the Cordus theory, time  for a particule (or bonded assembly of particules) is nothing more than its frequency, when the frequency changes the passage of time also changes.

So that is why time-dilation is not simply a measurement effect, or a problem with mechanical time-pieces. Instead it slows down (or speeds up) the passage of time for all particules in that volume of space.

This understanding of time-dilation requires the Cordus theories for:

  • Frequency and internal structure of particules
  • discrete forces,
  • strong force
  • force unification,
  • time at the level of single particules
  • fabric concept

The existing theories of physics do not have this breadth of coverage, so if all of these really are necessary to explain time-dilation then one can see why Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity would struggle to explain it.

This Cordus explanation applies equally to a living body experiencing time-dilation. Thinking is a chemical process and Aging is a physiological process of chemical degradation, so any process that slows the frequency of the components of the atoms will also slow time. But this is no solution for longevity, because such a person would not experience any advantage, because their thoughts and movements would also be slowed. They would not be able to do anything more with their time. The only effect is that they would notice on meeting is that other people’s histories were compressed (or stretched).

Read more here:

Pons, D.J. (2013) What really is time? A multiple-level ontological theory for time as a property of matter. vixra, 1-40 DOI:

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