Archive for category stability
How does the synchronous interaction, or strong nuclear force, attract nucleons and hold the nucleus together?
The Cordus theory of the synchronous interaction is key to the concept of the nuclear polymer.
How does the strong force work?
Conventionally the strong nuclear force is proposed to arise by the exchange of gluons of various colour. The theory for this is quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This force is then proposed to be much stronger in attraction than the electrostatic repulsion of protons of like charge, hence ‘strong’. Rather strangely, the theory requires the force to change and become repulsive at close range. This is to prevent it from collapsing the protons into a singularity (single point). Quite how this change operates is not explained, and the theory as a whole also cannot explain even the simplest atomic nucleus, let alone any of the features of the the table of nuclides. So there is a large gap between the colour force of QCD and any realistic explanation of atomic structure. QCD, gluons, and the strong attraction-repulsion force have no proven external validity: the concepts don’t extend to explain anything else.
It is time to attempt a different approach. Remember, it is necessary to explain not only how the quarks are bonded, but also how the protons and neutrons are bonded, and onward to explain why any one nuclide is stable/unstable/non-existent. That means seeking explanations to the bigger picture, rather than creating a narrowly-focussed mathematical model of one tiny part of the problem.
What holds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus?
Here is our progress so far. First, note that conventionally the strong nuclear force overcomes the electrostatic repulsion of protons. In contrast the Cordus theory proposes that the protons and neutrons are locked together by synchronisation of their emitted electrostatic forces. These forces are proposed to be discrete. This is a radically different mechanism that has nothing to do with the electrostatic force.
‘The Cordus theory proposes that the strong force arises from the synchronisation of discrete forces between the reactive ends of different particules. The emission directions represent the particule’s directional engagement with the external environment, and so two particules that co-locate one of each of their reactive ends need to share this access, and this is proposed as the basis for the synchronicity requirement. This causes the emission of the particules’ discrete forces to be interlocked. The discrete forces cause the reactive ends to be pulled into (or repelled from) co-location and held there. Hence the strong nature of the forces, its apparent attractive-repulsive nature, and its short range.’
What is the synchronous interaction?
Second, note that the conventional idea is that the strong force is one of a set that also includes the electrostatic, magnetic, and gravitational forces (EMG). In contrast the Cordus theory proposes that the electrostatic repulsion force is inoperable inside the atomic nucleus. So there is no need for a ‘strong’ force to ‘overcome’ the proton electrostatic repulsion. You can either have the EMG forces or the synchronous interaction, not both. The factor that determines which operates is whether the assembly of matter is discoherent or coherent.
‘Unexpectedly, the Cordus theory predicts that this synchronous force only applies to particules in coherent assembly. In such situations the synchronicity of emission means also that the assembled particules must energise at the same frequency (or a suitable harmonic), and either in or out of phase. Thus the synchronous interaction is predicted to be limited to particules in coherent assembly relationships, with the electro-magneto-gravitational forces being the corresponding interaction for discoherent assemblies of matter.’
This is a radical departure from the orthodox perspective, which otherwise sees the strong and electrostatic forces as operating concurrently. The Cordus theory predicts that the interaction between neighbouring protons in the nucleus is entirely synchronous (strong force) and that there is no electrostatic repulsion (at least for small nuclei).
What determines nuclide stability?
Third, the Cordus theory proposes, by logical extension, that the synchronous interaction makes two distinct types of bond, differentiated by same vs. opposed phase (cis- and transphasic) of the reactive ends. This concept does not exist in conventional theories of the strong force which are based on 0D points.
What is the nuclear polymer structure of the atomic nucleus?
By logical progression, this concept lead to the conclusion that protons and neutrons are bound together in a chain, or as we call it, a nuclear polymer. This proves to be a powerful concept, because with it we are able to explain nuclide structures. The following diagram shows how the principle is applied to some example nuclides.
More information maybe found in the following references. They are best read in the order given, rather than the order published.
19 July 2015, Christchurch, New Zealand
 Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Synchronous interlocking of discrete forces: Strong force reconceptualised in a NLHV solution Applied Physics Research, 2013. 5(5): p. 107-126. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n5107
 Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Nuclear polymer explains the stability, instability, and non-existence of nuclides. Physics Research International 2015. 2015(Article ID 651361): p. 1-19. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/651361
 Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research 2013. 5(6): p. 145-174. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145
Our previous work indicates that, under the rules of this framework of physics, the neutrino and antineutrino (neutrino-species) interact differently with matter. Specifically that (a) they interact differently with the proton compared to the neutron, and (b) they are not only by-products of the decay of those nucleons as in the conventional understanding, but also can be inputs that initiate decay. (See previous posts).
Extending that work to the nuclides more generally, we are now able to show how it might be that decay rates could be somewhat erratic for β+, β-, and EC. It is predicted on theoretical grounds that the β-, β+ and electron capture processes may be induced by pre-supply of neutrino-species, and that the effects are asymmetrical for those species. Also predicted is that different input energies are required, i.e. that a threshold effect exists. Four simple lemmas are proposed with which it is straightforward to explain why β- and EC decays would be enhanced and correlate to solar neutrino flux (proximity & activity), and alpha (α) emission unaffected.
Basically the observed variability is proposed to be caused by the way neutrinos and antineutrinos induce decay differently. This is an interesting and potentially important finding because there are otherwise no physical explanations for how variable decay rates might arise. So the contribution here is providing a candidate theory.
We have put the paper out to peer-review, so it is currently under submission. If you are interested in preliminary information, the pre-print may be found at the physics archive:
This work makes the novel contribution of proposing a detailed mechanism for neutrino-species induced decay, broadly consistent with the empirical evidence.
New Zealand, 14 Feb 2015
You may also be interested in related sites talking about variable decay rates:
See also the references in our paper for a summary of the journal literature.
UPDATE (20 April 2015): This paper has been published as DOI: 10.5539/apr.v7n3p18 and is available open access here http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/46281/25558
In our paper [1: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n2p1] we anticipate a unified decay equation. It describes all three conventional decays: β- neutron decay, β+ proton decay, and electron capture (EC). These are the decays of the individual proton or neutron.
Here is a handy Mnemonic for remembering all these decays, based on this equation: pie with icing equals nuts with egg below and a dash of vinegar
|Pproton||+||2y + iz(energy)||<=>||nneutron||+||eantielectron or positron||+||Vneutrino|
|pie||with||icing||equals||nuts||with||egg below||and||a dash of vinegar|
Then rearrange this to suit. Remember to invert the matter-antimatter species when you move a particle across the equality (species transfer rule). Note that we use underscore to show antimatter species, and this is the same as the overbar with which you may be more familiar. (We don’t use overbar because it is a confounded symbol used in other contexts such as h-bar. Underscore is a fresh and clearer way to designate antimatter species. It is also a visual reminder that this mechanics needs to be understood from within the NLHV framework of the Cordus theory, i.e. we are not talking about the usual zero-dimensional point particles of quantum mechanics here. Underscore is also easier to print and therefore use.)
The equation as written is focussed on the proton decay, which is β+. It is called beta plus because it gives a positive charge output in the form of the e hence ‘+’.
β+ proton decay: p + 2y => n + e + v
For electron capture just move the e across the equality to the p side and change it to plain ‘e’ instead.
Electron capture (EC): p + e => n + v
For neutron decay, move both the e and v across the equality, changing them to e and v. It is called beta ‘minus’ because the output is the negatively charged electron.
β- neutron decay: n => p + e + v
Remember that electric charge and matter-antimatter species hand are not the same thing. This is an easy area in which to get confused. Electric charge (+/-) refers to the direction in which the discrete forces of the electric field travel, and may be outwards or inwards from the particle. The matter-antimatter species hand (m/m) refers to the handedness of the discrete field, which in the Cordus theory corresponds to the energisation sequence of the field (somewhat like the firing order of a three-cylinder internal combustion engine) which also has two variables.
The mnemonic works for all three conventional decays providing you remember the species transfer rule, but I’m not convinced of the soundness of the dietary advice!
- Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Asymmetrical neutrino induced decay of nucleons Applied Physics Research, 2015. 7(2): p. 1-13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n2p1 or http://vixra.org/abs/1412.0279
The original Cordus conjecture  was a broad conceptual work, and we did not foresee that assuming a two-ended structure for particles would ultimately lead to highly specific predictions for many other phenomena, including nuclear processes as here. Now the theory predicts that neutrino-species can induce decay, and do so asymmetrically . That paper also predicted an underlying orderliness to the decay processes, in the form of a unified decay equation for individual protons and neutrons (nucleons).
Nucleons decay by β- neutron decay, β+ proton decay, and electron capture. These decays proceed by the emission of a neutrino species in the output stream. This is the forward direction. There is also a predicted inverse decay, where the neutrino-species is supplied as an input. The theory also predicts that the inverse decay can be induced, depending on the particle identities.
It is proposed that all these decays can be expressed in a single equation, the unified decay equation, given by:
p + 2y + iz <=> n + e + v
z discrete force complex (a type of vacuum fluctuation)
2y a pair of photons
i quantity, e.g. of photons
<=> indicates the decay is bidirectional
The equation can be rearranged. However, and this is important, there is a species transfer rule. Thus particles other than photons change matter-antimatter hand when transferred over the equality. One also has to be sensible about mass when predicting which side the photons are required.
For example, this equation may be rearranged to represent β-, β+, and EC in the conventional forward directions:
β- neutron decay: n => p + e + v
β+ proton decay: p + 2y => n + e + v
Electron capture (EC): p + e => n + v
Furthermore, by representing the equality as bidirectional we can show both the conventional (forward) and proposed neutrino-species induced decays in simple equations. For example:
p + e + v <=> n
with β- in the ‘<=’ direction, and antineutrino induced electron capture represented by ‘=>’.
It is simple to represent additional decays such as:
p + n <=> e + v + iy
Many other applications are possible. This simple mechanics of manipulating decay equations permits an efficient representation. The many different decays can all be represented in one equation. The equation holds for the conventional decays even if its reliability for the induced decays still needs to be validated.
So instead of trying to remember the three conventional decays (β-, β+, EC), simply remember one unified equation p + 2y + iz <=> n + e + v
- Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., Pons, A. M., and Pons, A. J., Wave-particle duality: A conceptual solution from the cordus conjecture. Physics Essays, 2012. 25(1): p. 132-140. DOI: http://physicsessays.org/doi/abs/10.4006/0836-1398-25.1.132 or http://vixra.org/abs/1106.0027 .
- Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Asymmetrical neutrino induced decay of nucleons Applied Physics Research, 2015. 7(2): p. 1-13. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n2p1 or http://vixra.org/abs/1412.0279
Why is the neutron stable inside the nucleus, but the free neutron outside the nucleus is unstable? Or to put it another way, why don’t neutrons in a nucleus decay, and why can’t free neutrons survive on their own? This is one of those problems that is difficult to explain. The decay behaviour of the neutron, which is the β- decay, can be measured and quantified, but the process itself is unknown. Conventional explanations are given in terms of mass-energy of the components and binding energy between them. However that’s a superficial quantification of WHAT happens in the situation. It does not explain HOW and WHY at the deeper level. Our latest paper addresses this topic (http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n1p1).
We started from the assumption that matter particles are not zero-dimensional points, but instead have internal structures and emit discrete fields (Cordus particule structure http://physicsessays.org/doi/abs/10.4006/0836-1398-25.1.132). We then determined how the discrete fields would operate within such a conceptual framework. We created a mathematical formalism of the principles for manipulating discrete forces and transforming one type of particule into another. This was used to determine the structures of the W and Z bosons, and the causes of neutron decay within this framework. It turns out that the stability of the neutron inside the nucleus arises because its pattern of discrete field emissions is complementary to that of the proton. The neutron is stable in this bound state because the assembly with the proton results in a complete, as opposed to incomplete, set of discrete forces. This gives the neutron the ability to resist the disrupting effect of the discrete fields coming at it from its surroundings. Hence the stability of the neutron within the nucleus.
This also means that the neutron is an intermediary between the protons. The discrete fields of the protons are otherwise incompatible with each other. Think of the neutron and proton as rods that join only at their ends. The result is chains of neutron-proton-neutron-proton-…. etc. This we call the ‘nuclear polymer’ and our other work shows how this may be used to explain the stability, instability, and non-existence of nuclides (H to Ne) (http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145).
That addresses the stability question. Regarding the other side of the problem, the instability of the free neutron arises because its own discrete field structures are incomplete. Consequently it is vulnerable to external perturbation by discrete fields arising from other particles in the universe (the ‘fabric’ http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874381101306010077). These incoming fields subject the free neuron to discrete forces, and we propose that the neutron spatially re-orientates its own field emissions to evade the incoming disturbances. However there is a high degree of randomness in the discrete fields of the fabric, and eventually the free neutron is caught out and its evasive behaviour is constrained. At this time it decays, via β- decay, into the more stable form of the proton.
The exponential life of the free neutron arises because the decay is determined by the random supply of external discrete fields (the background fabric). Consequently any one neutron has an equal chance of decaying anywhere between zero and infinite time. It’s probability of failing in the next instant is not dependent on how many previous instants have elapsed. In terms of probability this means it has a ‘constant hazard rate’. And a characteristic of such is an exponential lifetime. Thus we can explain why the free neutron has an exponential lifetime, as opposed to any other probability density distribution. We further propose that the magnitude of the neutron’s mean lifetime is determined by the fabric density of the epoch and location of the neutron.
Other implications of this work are that the W bosons are by-products from the weak decay process, and do not cause the decay. The weak decay is shown to be in the same class of phenomenon as annihilation, and is not a fundamental interaction.
Originality – A novel theory has been constructed for the decay process, using a NLHV mechanics that is deeper than quantum theory. This new theory explains the stability-instability of the neutron and is consistent with the new theory for the stability of the nuclides.
Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2015). Weak interaction and the mechanisms for neutron stability and decay Applied Physics Research, 7(1), 1-11. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v7n1p1
Big questions, few answers
The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons. The more difficult question is explaining how these are bonded together. How are the protons held together in the nucleus? Why don’t protons in a nucleus repel each other? Since protons all have positive change, they should REPEL each other with the electrostatic force. The atomic nucleus should fly apart, according to classical electrostatic theory. Yet it does not.
Also, the neutrons have neutral charge, so what holds them in place? For that matter, what are the neutrons even doing in the nucleus? Why does the nucleus not consist only of protons?
There are a number of conventional theories in this area: liquid drop, shell models, and the strong force.
Liquid drop and semi-empirical mass formula
The liquid drop model assumes that the protons and neutrons (i.e. nucleons) are all thrown together without any specific internal structure or bonding arrangements. Think marbles in a bag like this image. It is called the ‘liquid drop’ because it assumes surface tension and bulk effects. Its usual manifestation is the semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF), which is a ‘model’ because it fits coefficients to a type of power series. It represents the general trends in binding energy. On the positive side, it offer an underlying theoretical justification for the various terms. However there are also several criticisms of the SEMF. It is dependent on a very generous power series with no less than seven tuneable parameters: with that number of variables it is not surprising that a fit can be obtained. Unfortunately the fit is poor: It doesn’t model the light nuclides well, it totally fails to represent the extinction of the heaviest nuclides, it doesn’t model the isotope limits (drip lines) well, and it doesn’t accommodate the fact that the nucleons come in whole units. Other criticisms are that the real nuclides show abrupt changes, that the SEMF does not represent.
There are also shell models. These are more abstract, being mathematical representations of combinations of protons and neutrons. However the shell models don’t really provide much insight into how the nucleons are bonded. The theory assumes that independent clusters (shells) of protons and neutrons exist. It is based on the mathematical idea of a harmonic oscillator in three coordinates, but it is difficult to give a physical interpretation of this. The theory predicts certain combinations of nucleons are especially stable, hence “magic numbers”. This model also predicts stability for large atoms (hence “island of stability”) beyond the current range of synthesised elements, though the predictions vary with the particular method used. The shell model has good fit for atomic numbers below about 50, but becomes unwieldy for high atomic numbers. The related interacting boson model which assumes that nucleons exist in pairs. However this limits the model to nuclides where p=n, which is an overly simplistic assumption.
Strong Nuclear force
From the perspective of the Standard Model of quantum theory, the protons in the neutron do experience electrostatic repulsion, but the STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE is even stronger and holds the protons together. That force is proposed to be a residual of the strong force that acts at the quark level. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) proposes that the quarks inside the protons are bonded by the exchange of gluon particles, in the strong force. These gluons are massless particles and three types are proposed, called colours (red, blue, green). Hence the force is also called the colour force. At the quark level this force is proposed to haves some unusual characteristics:
(1) The strong force is strongly ATTRACTIVE at intermediate range, such that it overcomes the electrostatic force.
(2) At short range the strong force is presumed to be REPULSIVE. This attribute is needed to explain why the force does not contract the nucleus into a singularity.
(3) At long range the strong force is CONSTANT, and unlike the electro-magneto-gravitational (EMG) forces, does not decrease with distance. This is called colour confinement.
The colour force is consistent with known empirical data from the jets of material expelled at particle impacts. QCD is a good theory to explain what happens in high-energy particle impacts. But gluons have not been actually observed, only inferred from impacts, so other explanations are still possible.
Ideally the strong nuclear force would say how the protons and neutrons are bonded together, but there is a conceptual chasm in this area. It is unclear how the residual nuclear force (at nucleus level) emerges from the strong force (at quark level), except as a general concept that the gluons leak out. The theoretical details are lacking. Nor is it clear what structure it might impose on how the nucleons are arranged within the nucleus. It is also thought that the residual strong force causes BINDING ENERGY but again the exact mechanism is unknown. QCD is unable to predict even the most basic of nuclear attributes. It does not describe how multiple nucleons interact. It cannot explain the simplest nuclei, the hydrogen isotopes. It does not explain nuclear structure or the table of nuclides.
It is clear from observation that no nucleus exists with multiple protons and no neutrons, so evidently neutrons provide an important role within the nucleus, which is not represented in any of the existing theories.
Logically there should be a conceptual continuity between whatever force binds the protons and neutrons together, to an explanation of the properties of the nuclides. However QCD is stuck at the first stage, and the drop/shell models are marooned at the last stage.
Explaining why any one nuclide is stable, unstable (radioactive) or non-existent is not possible with any of these theories. Nor can existing theories explain why the nuclide series start and end where they do. They also do not explain why disproportionally more neutrons are needed as the number of protons increases (the stability line for p:n is curved as opposed to being a straight line).
If we take any one line of isotopes in the table of nuclides, such as Argon, then there are a number of questions.
Figure 1: Argon isotopes and key questions. Background image adapted from  https://www-nds.iaea.org/relnsd/vcharthtml/VChartHTML.html.
Answers in the Cordus mechanics – a design methodology
The Cordus physics answers many of these questions about the structure of the atomic nucleus. It is the only theory that can explain why any one nuclide is stable/unstable/non-existent, at least from H to Ne. The theory is based on COVERT STRUCTURES. This means that it predicts that particles are not actually zero-dimensional points, which is the standard premise of the conventional theories. Instead, the theory shows that solutions to these deep questions are possible providing one is willing to accept a design where particles have internal structures. Not just any covert structures either –the Cordus theory goes on to work out, using principles of engineering design, exactly what those structures would need to be. The theory predicts a specific string-like structure, and shows that if particles were to have this structure then many problems in fundamental physics can be given physically realistic explanations. The structure only becomes apparent at finer scales than the relatively coarse level at which quantum mechanics views the world.
What is the covert structure?
The theory predicts that a particle consists of two reactive ends, a small distance apart and joined by a fibril. These reactive ends emit discrete forces into the external environment. This whole structure is called a PARTICULE to differentiate it from a 0-D point particle. The particules react with other particules, e.g. bonding and forces, only at the reactive ends.
Figure 2: Proposed internal and external (discrete force) structures of the proton.
So, what does the Cordus theory say about nuclear structure?
The theory predicts that protons and neutrons are rod-like structures that interact at their two ends. So they have physical size. They join up in chains and networks, to form nuclear polymers. They preferentially bond proton-to-neutron, but will also bond proton-proton or neutron-neutron if there is no other choice. The theory explains how these bonds work, which is by the interlocking of the discrete fields of two or more nucleons. The atomic nucleus is thus proposed to consist of a polymer of protons and neutrons.
Figure 3: The synchronous interaction (strong force) bonds protons and neutrons together in a variety of way, resulting in nuclear polymer structures. These are proposed as the structure of the nucleus.
Some simple geometrically plausible assumptions may be added, in which case the design is able to explain a wide range of nuclides. For example it is necessary to assume that the polymer is generally be a closed loop (exceptions for the lightest nuclides) and there can be bridges across the loop. The polymer is required to take a specific shape, which is to wrap around the edges of a set of interconnected cubes. The cube idea might seem a bit strange, but is merely a consequence of having discrete three-dimensional fields for the proton and neutron. This need not be contentious as QCD has three colour charges.
The results show that the stability of nuclides can be qualitatively predicted by morphology of the nuclear polymer and the phase (cis/transphasic nature, or spin) of the particules. The theory successfully explains the qualitative stability characteristics of the nuclides, at least from hydrogen to neon and apparently higher.
This provides a radical new perspective on nuclear mechanics. This is the first theory to explain what holds the protons and neutrons in the nucleus, what the neutrons do in the nucleus, and why each nuclide is stable or unstable. It also explains why only certain nuclides exist, as opposed to being non-existent. It is also the first to do all this from first principles. Now it is still possible that all this good news is down to a luck chance, that the whole thing is spurious causality. If that were the case, then we would expect to see the theory collapse as it was applied to higher nuclides, or we would expect to see logical inconsistencies creep in as the theory was extended to other areas. So far there are none of those problems, but more work is necessary and until then we admit that this is still an open question. Nonetheless that it has been possible to achieve this, when no other theory has been able to come close to answering these questions, is promising.
The implications for fundamental physics are potentially far-reaching. Serious consideration must now be given to the likelihood that at the deeper level, particules have internal structure after all. This theory does not conflict with quantum mechanics but rather subsumes it: QM becomes a stochastic approximation to a deeper determinism, and the Standard Model of particle physics is re-interpreted as a set of zero-dimensional point-approximations to a finer-scaled covert structure. Now that would be something to be excited about.
Answers, according to the Cordus theory
Q: What is the atomic nucleus made of?
A: The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons that are rod-like structures (as opposed to 0-D points) that link into chains. These chains form a Nuclear polymer that is generally a closed loop (exceptions for the lightest nuclides) and there can be bridges across the loop. The polymer is required to take a specific shape, which is to wrap around the edges of a set of interconnected cubes.
Q: How are the protons held together in the nucleus?
A: An interlocking (synchronous) interaction. Forget the strong force – it turns out that’s not a helpful way to conceptualise the situation. What seems to be really happening is that the synchronous interaction holds both protons and neutrons together. It works by the synchronisation between discrete force emissions from neighbouring particules. One reactive end from each particule is thus locked together. The other reactive ends are free to make bonds with other particules. This explains why the effect is so ‘strong’ – it is an interlock. It also explains why the nucleus does not collapse in on itself (equivalent to ‘repulsive’ strong force). Furthermore these discrete forces continue out into the external environment (equivalent to ‘constant’ strong force at long-range). Furthermore, the Cordus theory predicts that the electrostatic force does not operate in the nucleus as it only applies to discoherent matter. Likewise the synchronous interaction only applies to coherent matter.
The theory gives an explanation of the nucleus, based in physical realism. This is a radical and highly novel outcome. If true, a conceptual revolution will be required at the fundamental level. Maybe its time … Physics is overdue for an earthquake.
12 Sept 2014
D J Pons, A D Pons, A M Pons, and A J Pons, Wave-particle duality: A conceptual solution from the cordus conjecture. Physics Essays. 25(1): p. 132-140. DOI: http://physicsessays.org/doi/abs/10.4006/0836-1398-25.1.132, (2012).
D J Pons, A D Pons, and A J Pons, Synchronous interlocking of discrete forces: Strong force reconceptualised in a NLHV solution Applied Physics Research. 5(5): p. 107-126. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n5107 (2013).
D J Pons, A D Pons, and A J Pons, Differentiation of Matter and Antimatter by Hand: Internal and External Structures of the Electron and Antielectron. Physics Essays. 27: p. 26-35. DOI: http://vixra.org/abs/1305.0157, (2014).
D J Pons, A D Pons, and A J Pons, Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research 5(6): p. 145-174. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145 (2013).
D J Pons, A D Pons, and A J Pons, Annihilation mechanisms. Applied Physics Research 6(2): p. 28-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n2p28 (2014).
D J Pons, A Pons, D., and A Pons, J., Beta decays and the inner structures of the neutrino in a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research. 6(3): p. 50-63. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n3p50 (2014).
What is proton decay?
Some theories of physics predict that the proton decays, i.e. it breaks down into other products. There is no experimental evidence that this actually occurs. If it does occur, it is expected to be a very rare event. The life of the proton, according to those theories that predict it to decay, is longer than 10^33. So there is no danger of the atoms in our world suddenly breaking up in an immediate end of the universe scenario.
Still, the question of proton decay is important to the grand unified theories (GUTs), those theories of physics that seek to unify the electric, magnetic, weak, and strong forces (interactions). Their idea is that the proton decays into a positron (antielectron) and pion. Quite how they might decay depends on the theory under consideration, and might involve the Higgs particle or other exotic particles that are not yet observed.
Does the Cordus conjecture have anything to add about proton decay?
Yes, it predicts that hitting it with two antineutrinos should remanufacture it to an antielectron and two photons. This prediction may be testable and falsifiable.
This result also implies that proton decay would not be fundamentally random, but rather a result of a specific coincidence of antineutrinos. In the Cordus model decay is a conditional event, which is an unorthodox position. By comparison conventional explanations consider decay rates to be fixed, and therefore the events are merely spontaneous and random. Read more …
What this means is that the proton could unravel back into a positron and two photons, with the right kind of forcing by antineutrinos. But realistically that is not expected to be a common occurrence given that antineutrinos do not react much with matter.
- Pons et al (2011) The preponderance of matter: Asymmetrical genesis via the antineutrino route, http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0035
- Cain (2007) The End of Everything (Universe Today) http://www.universetoday.com/11430/the-end-of-everything/