Archive for February, 2015

Variable decay rates of nuclides

Our previous work indicates that, under the rules of this framework of physics, the neutrino and antineutrino (neutrino-species) interact differently with matter. Specifically that (a) they interact differently with the proton compared to the neutron, and (b) they are not only by-products of the decay of those nucleons as in the conventional understanding, but also can be inputs that initiate decay. (See previous posts).

Extending that work to the nuclides more generally, we are now able to show how it might be that decay rates could be somewhat erratic for β+, β-, and EC. It is predicted on theoretical grounds that the β-, β+ and electron capture processes may be induced by pre-supply of neutrino-species, and that the effects are asymmetrical for those species. Also predicted is that different input energies are required, i.e. that a threshold effect exists. Four simple  lemmas are proposed with which it is straightforward to explain why β- and EC decays would be enhanced and correlate to solar neutrino flux (proximity & activity), and alpha (α) emission unaffected.

Basically the observed variability is proposed to be caused by the way neutrinos and antineutrinos induce decay differently. This is an interesting and potentially important finding because there are otherwise no physical explanations for how variable decay rates might arise. So the contribution here is providing a candidate theory.

We have put the paper out to peer-review, so it is currently under submission. If you are interested in preliminary information, the pre-print may be found at the physics archive:

This work makes the novel contribution of proposing a detailed mechanism for neutrino-species induced decay, broadly consistent with the empirical evidence.

Dirk Pons

New Zealand, 14 Feb 2015


You may also be interested in related sites talking about variable decay rates:

See also the references in our paper for a summary of the journal literature.


UPDATE (20 April 2015): This paper has been published as DOI: 10.5539/apr.v7n3p18 and is available open access here

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Mnemonic for the beta decays and electron capture

In our paper [1:] we anticipate a unified decay equation. It describes all three conventional decays: β- neutron decay, β+ proton decay, and electron capture (EC). These are the decays of the individual proton or neutron.

Here is a handy Mnemonic for remembering all these decays, based on this equation: pie with icing equals nuts with egg below and a dash of vinegar

Pproton + 2y + iz(energy) <=> nneutron + eantielectron or positron + Vneutrino
pie with icing equals nuts with egg below and a dash of vinegar


Then rearrange this to suit. Remember to invert the matter-antimatter species when you move a particle across the equality (species transfer rule). Note that we use underscore to show antimatter species, and this is the same as the overbar with which you may be more familiar. (We don’t use overbar because it is a confounded symbol  used in other contexts such as h-bar. Underscore is a fresh and clearer way to designate antimatter species. It is also a visual reminder that this mechanics needs to be understood from within the NLHV framework of the Cordus theory, i.e. we are not talking about the usual zero-dimensional point particles of quantum mechanics here. Underscore is also easier to print and therefore use.)

The equation as written is focussed on the proton decay, which is β+. It is called beta plus because it gives a positive charge output in the form of the e hence ‘+’.

β+ proton decay: p + 2y => n + e + v

For electron capture just move the e across the equality to the p side and change it to plain ‘e’ instead.

Electron capture (EC): p + e => n + v

For neutron decay, move both the e and v across the equality, changing them to e and v. It is called beta ‘minus’ because the output is the negatively charged electron.

β- neutron decay: n => p + e + v


Remember that electric charge and matter-antimatter species hand are not the same thing. This is an easy area in which to get confused. Electric charge (+/-) refers to the direction in which the discrete forces of the electric field travel, and may be outwards or inwards from the particle. The matter-antimatter species hand (m/m) refers to the handedness of the discrete field, which in the Cordus theory corresponds to the energisation sequence of the field (somewhat like the firing order of a three-cylinder internal combustion engine) which also has two variables.

The mnemonic works for all three conventional decays providing you remember the species transfer rule, but I’m not convinced of the soundness of the dietary advice!


  1. Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Asymmetrical neutrino induced decay of nucleons Applied Physics Research, 2015. 7(2): p. 1-13. DOI: or


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Unified decay equation for individual nucleons

The original Cordus conjecture [1] was a broad conceptual work, and we did not foresee that assuming a two-ended structure for particles would ultimately lead to highly specific predictions for many other phenomena, including nuclear processes as here. Now the theory predicts that neutrino-species can induce decay, and do so asymmetrically [2]. That paper also predicted an underlying orderliness to the decay processes, in the form of a unified decay equation for individual protons and neutrons (nucleons).

Nucleons decay by β- neutron decay, β+ proton decay, and electron capture. These decays proceed by the emission of a neutrino species in the output stream. This is the forward direction. There is also a predicted inverse decay, where the neutrino-species is supplied as an input. The theory also predicts that the inverse decay can be induced, depending on the particle identities.

It is proposed that all these decays can be expressed in a single equation, the unified decay equation, given by:

p + 2y + iz <=> n + e + v



n             neutron

p             proton

e             electron

e             antielectron

v              neutrino

v              antineutrino

y              photon

z              discrete force complex (a type of vacuum fluctuation)

2y           a pair of photons

i               quantity, e.g. of photons

<=>        indicates the decay is bidirectional

The equation can be rearranged. However, and this is important, there is a species transfer rule. Thus particles other than photons change matter-antimatter hand when transferred over the equality. One also has to be sensible about mass when predicting which side the photons are required.

For example, this equation may be rearranged to represent β-, β+, and EC in the conventional forward directions:

β- neutron decay: n => p + e + v

β+ proton decay: p + 2y => n + e + v

Electron capture (EC): p + e => n + v

Furthermore, by representing the equality as bidirectional we can show both the conventional (forward) and proposed neutrino-species induced decays in simple equations. For example:

p + e + v <=> n

with β- in the ‘<=’ direction, and antineutrino induced electron capture represented by ‘=>’.

It is simple to represent additional decays such as:

p + n <=> e + v + iy

Many other applications are possible. This simple mechanics of manipulating decay equations permits an efficient representation. The many different decays can all be represented in one equation. The equation holds for the conventional decays even if its reliability for the induced decays still needs to be validated.

So instead of trying to remember the three conventional decays (β-, β+, EC), simply remember one unified equation p + 2y + iz <=> n + e + v


  1. Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., Pons, A. M., and Pons, A. J., Wave-particle duality: A conceptual solution from the cordus conjecture. Physics Essays, 2012. 25(1): p. 132-140. DOI: or .
  2. Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Asymmetrical neutrino induced decay of nucleons Applied Physics Research, 2015. 7(2): p. 1-13. DOI: or


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Asymmetrical neutrino induced decay of nucleons

Most things in physics are symmetrical. This is evident in action-reaction forces and the conservation of momentum and energy. Particle interactions are generally also symmetrical. At least the Standard Model of particles predicts that particle interactions are symmetrical when charge, parity and time (hence CPT) transformations are all applied.

Which makes our latest findings all the more curious. In ‘Asymmetrical neutrino induced decay of nucleons’ ( we predict that the neutrino and antineutrino behave differently in their interactions with the proton and neutron. There are two parts to this prediction. First we predict that the neutrino and antineutrino (neutrino species) can cause (induce) decay. The conventional interpretation is that they are merely outcomes of the decay process, and are not involved in the input side at all. Second, we predict that the neutrino species induce decay differently with the proton and neutron (nucleons), hence asymmetrical decay. In contrast the conventional interpretation is that nucleon decay is purely random, that the mean lifetimes are constant, and that decay is not affected by the external environment.

This prediction is made on theoretical grounds by a logical extension of the Cordus theory, specifically by using its mechanics for discrete fields. This predicted asymmetry is novel and unorthodox. There is nothing in physics that disallows such an asymmetry, but neither is there any reason to expect it. We were therefore surprised that this asymmetry emerged. It was not something that we were actively seeking, but rather it was a supplementary exploration while we were searching for answers to the asymmetrical genesis problem. We have addressed the genesis situation elsewhere, and can explain how the universe came to be made up of more matter than antimatter (CP violation). The present paper takes a similar approach, in that it uses the same Cordus mechanics, but the starting point is different.

The problem is that the operation of neutrino detectors shows that nuclide decay rates can be affected by loading of neutrino species. However the underlying principles of this are poorly understood. The purpose of this paper was to develop a conceptual solution for the neutrino-species interactions with single nucleon decay processes. Single nucleons, i.e. a single proton or neutron, are a simplification of the more complex situation inside the nucleus of large atoms. The starting point was the non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution provided by the Cordus theory, specifically its mechanics for the manipulation of discrete forces and the remanufacture of particle identities. This mechanics was applied to the inverse beta decays and electron capture processes for nucleons. These are situations where the neutrino or antineutrino is supplied as an input, as opposed to being an output as in the conventional decays.

Our findings are that Inverse decays are predicted to be differentially susceptible to inducement by neutrino-species. The inverse β- neutron decay is predicted to be susceptible to neutrino inducement (but not to the antineutrino). Correspondingly β+ proton decay is predicted to be induced by input of energetic antineutrinos, but not neutrinos. Hence a species asymmetry is predicted. The inverse electron capture (EC) is predicted to be induced by pre-supply of either a neutrino or antineutrino, with different energy threshold requirements in each situation. The neutrino induced channel is predicted to have the greater energy barrier than the antineutrino channels.

We also have a third prediction. This is that one unified decay equation can be written to express β- neutron decay, β+ proton decay, and electron capture. Furthermore, that this equation applies to the conventional forward decays and the induced decays proposed here. The originality here is the proposed new methodology for predicting the outcomes of decays and particle transformations. If valid, this provides a simplification in the representation of the decay processes. An interesting little rule in the unified decay equation is that transfers across the equality result in inversion of the matter-antimatter species (hand).

What would be the implications if all this was valid? Well, the theory predicts the existence of a number of induced decays with asymmetrical susceptibility to neutrino-species. The results imply that detectors that measure β- outcomes are measuring neutrinos, and β+ antineutrinos.   A novel prediction is made, that neutrino-species induce decay of nucleons, and that the interaction is asymmetrical. Hence also, that different decay types are affected differently by the input of energy and neutrino-species. A detailed explanation is provided of how this occurs at the level of the internal structures of the particules.

This is an unorthodox theory and an unexpected set of predictions. Whether or not this theory is valid we do not yet know, but it does make specific predictions that no other theory makes, which is interesting. None of these are contemplated from conventional theories of quantum mechanics, the standard model, or supersymmetry. This might seem a weakness, but is actually a good position to be in for concept development. If a theory can predict something specific that other theories cannot, then then that differentiates the theory. In this case the predictions are also testable. Consequently this gives a way to for the future to show whether or not it is valid (falsifiable). For the moment we simply state that it is a logical extension of the Cordus theory, and the outcomes are curious enough to be worth reporting.


[1] D.J. Pons, A.D. Pons, A.J. Pons, Asymmetrical neutrino induced decay of nucleons Applied Physics Research, 7 (2015) 1-13. or

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