Archive for December, 2014

Genesis production sequence

Problem

Fundamental physics and cosmology intersect at genesis. Some really big and interesting problems arise here. One of these is to explain the production of matter at the initial genesis event (big bang). There are several sub-problems. These include a need to describe how mass-energy equivalence occurs at the fundamental level, i.e. how energy transforms into mass (E=mc^2). This is particularly important for pair-production, e.g. the conversion of photon energy into an electron and anti-electron (positron). It is also necessary to understand how the inverse process of annihilation occurs. Related to that, and an especially difficult problem, is to explain why more matter (electrons, protons) exists than antimatter (positrons, anti-protons). This is the asymmetrical genesis problem, and it has two parts: asymmetrical leptogensis, and asymmetrical baryogenesis, for the electrons and protons respectively.

However the problems don’t stop there. An explanation is also needed for how the neutron is made. This is much the easiest part, since the beta decays and electron capture processes are readily observable, unlike the other parts of the process. So conventional physics already provides theories in this area.

The next step is to explain how the atomic nucleus functions, i.e. how protons and neutrons are bound together. This is much more difficult. The strong force is thought to be the mechanism for this, but its workings at this level have not been solved. Also, the Universe is not made solely of hydrogen, but instead there are many elements, and each has many isotopes, with different lifetimes. All these nuclides need explaining too. Other problems to explain are electron orbitals (quantum theory is pretty advanced in this area), and the inflation process.

In summary, the genesis problem is to explain how energy was converted into the diverse forms of matter that we observer in our Universe.

Approach

We apply a production and systems engineering method to this problem. To our way of thinking there exists a GENESIS PRODUCTION SEQUENCE (GPS). We seek to determine what kind of processes could be involved. Our approach is a systems-engineering one based on the premise of physical realism: we take the attributes of the observable universe, and from those infer the necessary functionality of deeper proceses (sub-systems). Where necessary we use design thinking to creatively anticipate the mechanisms that support those deeper systems. We require a logical continuity of explanation throughout the solution that emerges, and constantly test and adjust the theory to achieve this. This provides coherence. We then logically extend the theory to other phenomena, and explore whether it is able to give solutions to those new areas. In this way we test the external construct validity, and further change or extend the theory as appropriate. We have been doing this for several years, and have steadily advanced our coverage of fundamental physics and cosmology. The result is the Cordus theory.

Now the pieces of the genesis production sequence are starting to come together.

Findings

The Cordus theory now provides solutions for much of the genesis production sequence. We now understand the processes of mass-energy equivalence, at least at a conceptual level, and this includes both pair-production and annihilation.The asymmetrical genesis problem also has a solution, for both leptogenesis and baryogenesis. [See previous post]. We can also explain the processes for beta decay, and the stability attributes of the nuclides (H to Ne).

The diagram below summarises the production processes from photons to the electron, proton and neutron. Hence the origin of all the basic building blocks of the matter Universe can be explained. The coloured objects in the large central blocks are the inferred internal structures of the various particles.

 

The production route for all the basic building blocks of matter are represented. Starting from the conversion of energy into matter and  antimatter (pair production), through to the production of protons (asymmetrical baryogenesis), the creation of neutrons, and the internal structure of the atomic nucleus.

The production route for all the basic building blocks of matter are represented. Starting from the conversion of energy into matter and antimatter (pair production), through to the production of protons (asymmetrical baryogenesis), the creation of neutrons, and the internal structure of the atomic nucleus.

 

Implications

This is an interesting development for two reasons.

First, it is surprising that a theory based on a non-local hidden-variable design with discrete fields should have this degree of explanatory power. Physics had otherwise given up on NLHV designs. Many have attempted to mathematically disprove even the possibility of their existence, as per the Bell-type inequalities. However the NLHV designs have never been fully disproved on theoretical grounds, and now a design has emerged that shows how powerful they can be in an explanatory sense. By fielding a workable solution, in the form of the Cordus theory, means that the Bell-type inequalities are falsified. This is surprising to many, to the point of disbelief.

Second, it is interesting that a candidate theory now exists for much of the genesis production sequence.  Other theories of physics, such as quantum mechanics, relativity, and string theory, have solutions for pieces of this. But their explanations do not go anywhere near the coherence and breadth of this. The new theory starts to show the limitations of the old theories, and starts to subsume them. Consequently the implication is that there is a new physics provided in this internal variable theory.  This is difficult for orthodox physicists to accept. We  see this disbelief in Reviewers’ comments. They say it is impossible that quantum mechanics is not the  solution. Physicists have so much intellectual investment in quantum theory (in particular), that they cannot but persist with QM. In systems engineering we call that a sunk-cost bias.

References

You can read more about the genesis solution in paper [8].

1.    Pons, D. J. and Pons, A., D., Outer boundary of the expanding cosmos: Discrete fields and implications for the holographic principle The Open Astronomy Journal, 2013. 6: p. 77-89. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874381101306010077.
2.    Pons, D. J., Pons, A., D., and Pons, A., J., Time: An emergent property of matter. Applied Physics Research, 2013. 5(6): p. 23-47. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p23
3.    Pons, D. J., Pons, A., D., and Pons, A., J., Beta decays and the inner structures of the neutrino in a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research, 2014. 6(3): p. 50-63. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n3p50
4.    Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Explanation of the Table of Nuclides:  Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research 2013. 5(6): p. 145-174. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145
5.    Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Synchronous interlocking of discrete forces: Strong force reconceptualised in a NLHV solution  Applied Physics Research, 2013. 5(5): p. 107-126. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n5107
6.    Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Differentiation of Matter and Antimatter by Hand: Internal and External Structures of the Electron and Antielectron. Physics Essays, 2014. 27: p. 26-35. DOI: http://vixra.org/abs/1305.0157.
7.    Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Annihilation mechanisms. Applied Physics Research 2014. 6(2): p. 28-46. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n2p28
8.    Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Asymmetrical genesis by remanufacture of antielectrons. Journal of Modern Physics, 2014. 5: p. 1980-1994. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2014.517193.
9.    Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Weak interaction and the mechanisms for neutron stability and decay Applied Physics Research,  (IN PRESS)
http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0023.
10.    Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., Pons, A. M., and Pons, A. J., Wave-particle duality: A conceptual solution from the cordus conjecture. Physics Essays, 2012. 25(1): p. 132-140. DOI: http://physicsessays.org/doi/abs/10.4006/0836-1398-25.1.132.

 

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