Posts Tagged Time
Which is better for fundamental physics: beautiful mathematics based on pure concepts, or qualitative insights based on natural phenomena?
According to Lee Smolin in a 2015 arxiv paper , it’s the latter.
Mathematical symmetries: More or fewer?
How to find a better physics?
26 February 2016, Christchurch, New Zealand
This is an expansion of a post at Physics Forum https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/smolin-lessons-from-einsteins-discovery.849464/#post-5390859
 1. Smolin, L.: Lessons from Einstein’s 1915 discovery of general relativity. arxiv 1512.07551, 1-14 (2015). doi: http://arxiv.org/abs/1512.07551
One of the long-standing philosophical questions is whether there is a reality to what humans experience. One of the famously controversial ways to looking at this is the holographic principle, which proposes that everything we experience in 3D is merely a holographic projection of 2D information on the outside surface of the universe.
That raises a second question, which is how my experience of reality is connected and coordinated with yours. This introduces time into the problem. Special relativity (SR) has a principle, in the form of the relativity of simultaneity, that says that the order in time of two spatially separate events cannot be determined absolutely, but instead depends on the motion of the observer. Thus it is impossible to order two events in time if they occur in different places (hence difference frames of reference).
In our Cordus theory of time, we examine some of these questions. We look at the question of how multiple bodies interact, and how the coordination arises. We have already identified that there is no master clock, but if that is lacking then we still need a coordination mechanism. There is a connectedness of phenomena that are at different geometric locations. It seems that spacetime is continuous, because it seems that it is possible to coordinate the two phenomena in time. We show that the two phenomena are linked, because they share the same fabric.
According to this new perspective, any communication between two objects is a result of photons, or massy particules, or fields, and these cause positional constraints on the other, i.e. the geometric location of the reactive end is affected by the communication. A phenomenon that occurs in one volume of matter, be that combustion, noise, motion, etc, thereby communicates that to other matter around it. Consider one volume to be my body: my speaking transmits forces to the volume of air immediately around me, which in turn propagates the dynamic displacement throughout its bulk, so that the membrane in your ear is displaced, and you hear the sound.
In general the phenomenon is that one volume of matter causes an effect in the second. The interactions at the most basic level all require frequency cycles, so this causes temporal causality. Thus we infer:
It is not a master clock that accomplishes the temporal connectedness of phenomena that are at different geometric locations, nor does it require continuity of spacetime per se. The piece-wise communication, via discrete field interactions of the fabric, between adjacent volumes of space (matter and fabric) applies spatial consistency to time.
Any one particule A receives discrete forces (fields) from all the particules (many Bs) in the observable universe. Space within the universe is therefore filled with a mesh of discrete fields in transit, which in the Cordus theory is termed the fabric.
Fabric time is the mutual interconnectedness of matter particules spread over three-dimensional space. This occurs via the fabric, comprising discrete field forces for electric-magnetic-gravitational interaction. Not strictly a time, this is rather a coordination of events across space.
In this theory the fabric, and the EMG fields it carries, causes a connectedness between particules. They respond together, even if in a slightly delayed manner as their separation increases. There is therefore a coherence and smoothness to the interaction between particules, mediated by the fabric. The resulting interaction stitches together three-dimensional domains of space (matter and vacuum-fabric) into a macroscopic collated time. This level of time passes more slowly, due to the many tiny delays required for particules to react to each other, given the dissimilar-frequency and phase-differences between the particules. This, Cordus suggests, is where the arrow-of-time arises, and what general relativity perceives as spacetime. This is also the macroscopic level of physical time, and hence where our perception of time first arises.
This Cordus concept of 3D fabric affirms the general relativity perspective of spacetime. It also provides an ontological answer to one of the earlier questions: it suggests that spacetime has a quasi-substantial status (comprises discrete force) but has no universal time-signature per se, and mainly represents merely the relationships between bodies.
Read more about the Cordus time theory here:
Pons, D.J. (2013) What really is time? A multiple-level ontological theory for time as a property of matter. vixra, 1-40 DOI: http://vixra.org/abs/1301.0074.
The Cordus conjecture suggests a particular multi-level interpretation for time. In this construct, time at the fundamental level is generated by each individual particule, and is associated with the frequency of the particule. Of the different *times* within the Cordus model, this ticks the fastest. However, particules will generally not have identical frequencies, and even like particules with different energy or in different situations will tick differently.
The next level of time is caused by the interactions of multiple particules. This interaction occurs since each particule emits discrete field elements, and these interact with neighbouring particules, either strongly as in bonding, or weakly as in macroscopic fields. The resulting interaction stitches together three-dimensional domains of space (matter and vacuum-fabric) into a macroscopic collated time. This level of time passes more slowly, due to the many tiny delays required for particules to react to each other, given the dissimilar-frequency and phase-differences between the particules. There is no real tick at this level, but rather a one-directional mutual causality. This, Cordus suggests, is where the arrow-of-time arises, and what general relativity perceives as spacetime. This is also the macroscopic level of physical time, and hence where our perception of time arises. Actually, Cordus suggests there are several intermediate levels of time, and these are described later.
Thus there is more than one *time*. The time at the macroscopic level is different to that within particules. Macroscopic time depends on the connectedness of matter hence on the number of particules and the nature of their relationship, i.e. the ‘level of assembly’ of matter .
This is an unusual approach, since time is conventionally associated with a dimension (spacetime) of the cosmos. Nonetheless it has the potential to better-explain certain features of time.
We are currently working on the problems that arise at the intersection of physics and philosophy. Questions we are asking include, ‘What is time?’, ‘Does locality exist?’, ‘Is there free-will?’, ‘Why does QM coherence seem to apply, but not to macroscopic objects?’ Applying the cordus idea gives some interestingly novel perspectives to these problems.
We have addressed the time issue, and published a paper on that topic. Likewise for coherence, and again locality.
The results are interesting for the new insights they bring. They are also radical, and challenge the orthodox interpretations. That radical attribute can be problematic: We submitted the time paper to a journal, and received a cutting rejection from the reviewers, so that hasn’t got much further! Well, we keep trying.
Next we are looking at FREE-WILL. We have done some preliminary work, and I think we can add novel insights there too.
- Limits of Coherence (cordus.wordpress.com)
- What really is time? (cordus.wordpress.com)
- The Historical Bifurcation Between Science and Philosophy (sdcojai.wordpress.com)
Time is a strange effect in the universe. What exactly is time, and how does it arise?
One way of looking at time is to consider to be the fourth dimension: after the usual three of length, width and depth. Hence we have the concept of spacetime. This is most famously put forward by Einstein in special relativity, though the roots of that predated even him.
At our personal level of perception, time is a physical reality. Everything else around us also seems to exist in the same time-frame as ourselves. For example, we stretch out our arm to shake the hand of someone else, and there really is a someone else there with whom we can interact.
But relativity says that is an illusion, that time progresses differently in various places. This is called time-dilation, and the effect is real: time passes slower where gravity is stronger or acceleration is greater.
In our recent paper we explore time, using the cordus conjecture. What emerges is a novel and useful way of thinking about time. Cordus suggests that at its most basic level time originates with the frequency cycles of the particules of matter and photons. Thus time is locally generated, and cordus rejects the idea of an absolute clock. The forward arrow is only applied to the ticks of time when irreversibility arises.
The paper explains how the irreversibility arises, in terms of the interaction between two volumes of matter and the statistically impossibility of returning all particules in the system to their original positions and states. Thus decoherence, irreversibility, entropy, cause-and-effect, and the arrow of time all arise at the same discontinuity in physics. The interconnectedness of matter, via its fields, creates a patchwork of temporal cause-and-effect.
Thus human perceptions of time are a construct, with all the potential for illusion that implies, founded on a real physical principle of temporal causality.
However that is really only a convenience, becuase the first three are spatial (geometric) dimensions, whereas time does not have the same units.
About time: What is it? New Scientist
About time: Why does time’s arrow fly only one way? New Scientist
About time: Is time travel possible? New Scientist
Limits of Coherence (cordus.wordpress.com)