Posts Tagged Nuclide
How does the synchronous interaction, or strong nuclear force, attract nucleons and hold the nucleus together?
The Cordus theory of the synchronous interaction is key to the concept of the nuclear polymer.
How does the strong force work?
Conventionally the strong nuclear force is proposed to arise by the exchange of gluons of various colour. The theory for this is quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This force is then proposed to be much stronger in attraction than the electrostatic repulsion of protons of like charge, hence ‘strong’. Rather strangely, the theory requires the force to change and become repulsive at close range. This is to prevent it from collapsing the protons into a singularity (single point). Quite how this change operates is not explained, and the theory as a whole also cannot explain even the simplest atomic nucleus, let alone any of the features of the the table of nuclides. So there is a large gap between the colour force of QCD and any realistic explanation of atomic structure. QCD, gluons, and the strong attraction-repulsion force have no proven external validity: the concepts don’t extend to explain anything else.
It is time to attempt a different approach. Remember, it is necessary to explain not only how the quarks are bonded, but also how the protons and neutrons are bonded, and onward to explain why any one nuclide is stable/unstable/non-existent. That means seeking explanations to the bigger picture, rather than creating a narrowly-focussed mathematical model of one tiny part of the problem.
What holds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus?
Here is our progress so far. First, note that conventionally the strong nuclear force overcomes the electrostatic repulsion of protons. In contrast the Cordus theory proposes that the protons and neutrons are locked together by synchronisation of their emitted electrostatic forces. These forces are proposed to be discrete. This is a radically different mechanism that has nothing to do with the electrostatic force.
‘The Cordus theory proposes that the strong force arises from the synchronisation of discrete forces between the reactive ends of different particules. The emission directions represent the particule’s directional engagement with the external environment, and so two particules that co-locate one of each of their reactive ends need to share this access, and this is proposed as the basis for the synchronicity requirement. This causes the emission of the particules’ discrete forces to be interlocked. The discrete forces cause the reactive ends to be pulled into (or repelled from) co-location and held there. Hence the strong nature of the forces, its apparent attractive-repulsive nature, and its short range.’
What is the synchronous interaction?
Second, note that the conventional idea is that the strong force is one of a set that also includes the electrostatic, magnetic, and gravitational forces (EMG). In contrast the Cordus theory proposes that the electrostatic repulsion force is inoperable inside the atomic nucleus. So there is no need for a ‘strong’ force to ‘overcome’ the proton electrostatic repulsion. You can either have the EMG forces or the synchronous interaction, not both. The factor that determines which operates is whether the assembly of matter is discoherent or coherent.
‘Unexpectedly, the Cordus theory predicts that this synchronous force only applies to particules in coherent assembly. In such situations the synchronicity of emission means also that the assembled particules must energise at the same frequency (or a suitable harmonic), and either in or out of phase. Thus the synchronous interaction is predicted to be limited to particules in coherent assembly relationships, with the electro-magneto-gravitational forces being the corresponding interaction for discoherent assemblies of matter.’
This is a radical departure from the orthodox perspective, which otherwise sees the strong and electrostatic forces as operating concurrently. The Cordus theory predicts that the interaction between neighbouring protons in the nucleus is entirely synchronous (strong force) and that there is no electrostatic repulsion (at least for small nuclei).
What determines nuclide stability?
Third, the Cordus theory proposes, by logical extension, that the synchronous interaction makes two distinct types of bond, differentiated by same vs. opposed phase (cis- and transphasic) of the reactive ends. This concept does not exist in conventional theories of the strong force which are based on 0D points.
What is the nuclear polymer structure of the atomic nucleus?
By logical progression, this concept lead to the conclusion that protons and neutrons are bound together in a chain, or as we call it, a nuclear polymer. This proves to be a powerful concept, because with it we are able to explain nuclide structures. The following diagram shows how the principle is applied to some example nuclides.
More information maybe found in the following references. They are best read in the order given, rather than the order published.
19 July 2015, Christchurch, New Zealand
 Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Synchronous interlocking of discrete forces: Strong force reconceptualised in a NLHV solution Applied Physics Research, 2013. 5(5): p. 107-126. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n5107
 Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Nuclear polymer explains the stability, instability, and non-existence of nuclides. Physics Research International 2015. 2015(Article ID 651361): p. 1-19. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/651361
 Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research 2013. 5(6): p. 145-174. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145
Our previous work has shown that it is possible to explain the existence of the nuclides H-Ne, specifically why each is stable/unstable/non-existent. This is achieved under the assumption that the protons and neutrons are rod-like structures. Previous work in the Cordus theory has shown how the discrete fields of these particules would interlock by synchonising their emissions. Hence the STRONG NUCLEAR FORCE was explained as a SYNCHRONOUS INTERACTION of discrete field emissions.
Now we have published the details of these mechanics. See citation below. The theory predicts the nuclear morphology, i.e. the types of shapes that the protons and neutrons can make in their bonding arrangements. It turns out that this is best described as a NUCLEAR POLYMER. Thus the atomic nucleus is proposed to consist of a chain of protons and neutrons. In the lightest nuclides this chain may be open ended, but in general the chain has to be closed. It appears that for stability the proton and neutron need to alternate, and this explains why neutrons are always needed in the nucleus above 1H1. The theory also predicts that the neutrons can form CROSS-BRIDGES, and that these stabilise the loop into smaller loops. This also explains another puzzling feature of the table of nuclides, which is why disproportionately more neutrons are required for heavier elements. In addition the theory predicts that the sub-loops of the nuclear polymer are required to take specific shapes. This paper explains all these underlying principles and applies them to explain the hydrogen and helium nuclides.
The significance of this is the following. First, this is the first published theory of why individual isotopes are stable or unstable, or even non-existent. By comparison no other theory has done this, neither the binding energy approach, the semi-empirical mass-formula (SEMF), the various bag theories, nor quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Second, this has been achieved with a hidden-variable theory. This is a surprise, since such theories have otherwise been scarce and hard to develop. The only one of note has been the de Brogle-Bohm theory of the pilot wave, and that certainly does not have application to anything nuclear. So the first theory to explain the stability features of the table of nuclides for the lighter elements is a non-local theory rather than an empirical model, quantum theory, or string theory. That is deeply unexpected. It vindicates the hidden-variable approach, which has long been neglected.
Ultimately any theory of physics is merely a proposition of causality, and while any theory may be validated as sufficiently accurate at some level, there is always opportunity for further development. The Cordus theory and its nuclear mechanics implies that quantum mechanics is a stochastic approximation based on zero-dimensional point morphology of what the Cordus theory asserts is a deeper structure to matter.
Of course there is still much work to do. Showing that a hidden-variable theory explains these nuclides is an achievement but is not proof that the theory is valid. In the future we will need to expand the theory to the larger table of nuclides. If it can explain them, well that would be something. Also, it would be interesting to devise a mathematical formalism for the Cordus theory. Doing so would provide another method to explore the validity of the theory.
Dirk Pons, 9 July 2015, Christchurch
Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., and Pons, A. J., Nuclear polymer explains the stability, instability, and non-existence of nuclides. Physics Research International 2015. 2015(Article ID 651361): p. 1-19. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/651361 (open access) or http://vixra.org/abs/1310.0007 (open access)
Problem – The explanation of nuclear properties from the strong force upwards has been elusive. It is not clear how binding energy arises, or why the neutrons are necessary in the nucleus at all. Nor has it been possible to explain, from first principles of the strong force, why any one nuclide is stable, unstable, or non-existent. Approach – Design methods were used to develop a conceptual mechanics for the bonding arrangements between nucleons. This was based on the covert structures for the proton and neutron as defined by the Cordus theory, a type of non-local hidden-variable design with discrete fields. Findings – Nuclear bonding arises from the synchronous interaction between the discrete fields of the proton and neutron. This results in not one but multiple types of bond, cis- and transphasic, and assembly of chains and bridges of nucleons into a nuclear polymer. The synchronous interaction constrains the relative orientation of nucleons, hence the nuclear polymer takes only certain spatial layouts. The stability of nuclides is entirely predicted by morphology of the nuclear polymer and the cis/transphasic nature of the bonds. The theory successfully explains the qualitative stability characteristics of all hydrogen and helium nuclides. Originality – Novel contributions include: the concept of a nuclear polymer and its mechanics; an explanation of the stability, instability, or non-existence of nuclides starting from the strong/synchronous force; explanation of the role of the neutron in the nucleus. The theory opens a new field of mechanics by which nucleon interactions may be understood.
Our previous work indicates that, under the rules of this framework of physics, the neutrino and antineutrino (neutrino-species) interact differently with matter. Specifically that (a) they interact differently with the proton compared to the neutron, and (b) they are not only by-products of the decay of those nucleons as in the conventional understanding, but also can be inputs that initiate decay. (See previous posts).
Extending that work to the nuclides more generally, we are now able to show how it might be that decay rates could be somewhat erratic for β+, β-, and EC. It is predicted on theoretical grounds that the β-, β+ and electron capture processes may be induced by pre-supply of neutrino-species, and that the effects are asymmetrical for those species. Also predicted is that different input energies are required, i.e. that a threshold effect exists. Four simple lemmas are proposed with which it is straightforward to explain why β- and EC decays would be enhanced and correlate to solar neutrino flux (proximity & activity), and alpha (α) emission unaffected.
Basically the observed variability is proposed to be caused by the way neutrinos and antineutrinos induce decay differently. This is an interesting and potentially important finding because there are otherwise no physical explanations for how variable decay rates might arise. So the contribution here is providing a candidate theory.
We have put the paper out to peer-review, so it is currently under submission. If you are interested in preliminary information, the pre-print may be found at the physics archive:
This work makes the novel contribution of proposing a detailed mechanism for neutrino-species induced decay, broadly consistent with the empirical evidence.
New Zealand, 14 Feb 2015
You may also be interested in related sites talking about variable decay rates:
See also the references in our paper for a summary of the journal literature.
UPDATE (20 April 2015): This paper has been published as DOI: 10.5539/apr.v7n3p18 and is available open access here http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/apr/article/view/46281/25558
This application of the Cordus theory offers a descriptive solution for the relative lifetimes of all the nuclides of Hydrogen to Neon.
More specifically, the theory is able to explain why any one nuclide is stable, unstable, or non-existent. Consequently the theory also explains the drip lines, which are the margins of stability to the table of nuclides. It also explains the gaps in the series and sudden changes in stability across a series. This is achieved by identifying a unique set of rules -a mechanics- for the nuclear polymer. This is based, as with all the rest of the Cordus theory, on a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design.
The chart of the nuclides as per the Cordus theory is shown below.
This is a large diagram and may look blank: you will need to pan and zoom to see it. The paper containing this diagram has been submitted to a journal for peer-review. A copy is available on the vixra physics archive.
This theory also explains several other trends in the table of nuclides, which we may discuss another time. Other theories, including quantum chromodynamics (QCD), binding energy, shell model, liquid drop model, and semi-empirical mass formula (SEMF) can explain some of the features of the table of nuclides, but tend to be limited to mathematical representations of binding energy, with little real explanatory power. In contrast this Cordus theory offers explanations where these other theories are at a loss.
So it appears that the nuclide landscape may be explained by morphological considerations based on a NLHV design.
- Explaining the Nuclides (cordus.wordpress.com)
- Here is a really useful chart of the nuclides: https://www-nds.iaea.org/relnsd/vcharthtml/VChartHTML.html
- Paper version one Pons DJ, Pons AD, Pons AJ. (2013) Internal structure and assembly mechanics of the nucleus: Nuclides of hydrogen to neon, http://vixra.org/abs/1310.0172
- Update 29/11/2013: Published as Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2013). Explanation of the Table of Nuclides: Qualitative nuclear mechanics from a NLHV design. Applied Physics Research, 5(6), 145-174. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n6p145
HI! He Lithely Bellowed Boringly, Car Nicely On Fire Nearby.
There are many unsolved problems in this area. How are the protons and neutrons arranged in the nucleus? What makes some combinations of protons and neutrons stable, and others not? Why do the series start and stop where they do? How does the strong force bind protons and neutrons in nuclear structures? How do point particles make up a nucleus with volume?
All this continues to be a mystery, a century after Rutherford’s discovery of the nucleus. Current theories for this area, e.g. magic numbers, QCD, and the SEMF, don’t have answers, despite having working at the problem for half a century or more.
The whole thing needs a total re-think at the fundamental level, and we propose starting with what it means to be a ‘particle’. Quantum mechanics (QM) is built on the assumption that particles are zero-dimensional points. What if quantum mechanics was wrong? What are the alternatives?
One option is to assume that particles really do have internal structures. This is called a hidden-variable solution. However trying to find a workable version has been an insurmountable difficulty, and most people in physics have given up trying. We have had some success in this, in the form of the Cordus theory. This is a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) design. Even so, explaining the nuclides from first principles, whether with QM or a NLHV design, is a formidable task that has not been solved.
Consequently, we plan to approach it in stages. Here’s where we have got to:
STAGE A: Create a theory for how the strong force works. [DONE] In the Cordus theory this corresponds to a synchronous interaction. As a bonus, we also get force unification. Read the journal paper here http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v5n5107
STAGE B: Elucidate how the synchronous interaction applies to proton and neutrons. [DONE] Surprisingly, it turns out that there are two versions, not just one, of the this force. We worked out how this would affect the bonding of protons and neutrons. This gave us an explanation of what the neutron is doing in the nucleus. As a bonus, we also got the nuclear structures of the hydrogen nuclides. And as a further bonus, we were able to explain why both 1H0 and 1H1 are stable. So that is ‘Hi!’ sorted. Read the preprint here http://viXra.org/abs/1309.0010
STAGE C: Discover how larger collections of protons and neutrons join together. [DONE] Unexpectedly, the theory suggests the protons and neutrons form a nuclear polymer. Generally this is a closed loop. We find the design capable of accepting three-nucleon assemblies, in the form of Bridge neutrons. As a bonus, we find the nuclides of Helium. So that is Hi! ‘He..’ done. Read the preprint here http://vixra.org/abs/1310.0007
That’s all the progress to report for now.
STAGE D: Predict the nuclide structure. Interpret the trends in the table of nuclides. [WORK IN PROGRESS] H and He are easy nuclides. After this it get tougher. We are working on it and hope to report back shortly.