Posts Tagged NLHV

Optical phenomena involving energy conversion: Explanation based on new physics

Many optical phenomena have poor or no explanations at the level of individual photon particles. Examples are the processes of photon emission, photon absorption, phase change at reflection, and laser emissions. These are adequately described by the classical electromagnetic wave theory of light, but that applies to waves and is difficult to extend to individual particles. Quantum mechanics (QM) better represents the behaviour of individual particles, but its power of explanation is weak, i.e. it can put numbers to phenomena but its explanations cannot be grounded in physical realism. QM is unable to explain how the 0D point of the photon is absorbed into the 0D point of the electron, or how a 0D photon separates into an electron and antielectron (pair production), or how matter and antimatter annihilate back to photons.

In the paper we show how to solve this explanatory problem. We show that it is possible to explain many optical phenomena involving energy conversion. The solution involves a new physics at the sub-particle level, in the form of a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution.

Process of photon emission from an electron

Process of photon emission from an electron


It has long been known that the bonding commitments of the electron affect its energy behaviour but the mechanisms for this have been elusive. We show how the degree of bonding constraint on the electron determines how it processes excess energy, see figure. A key concept is that the span and frequency of the electron are inversely proportional. This explains why energy changes cause positional distress for the electron.

Natural explanations are given for  multiple emission phenomena: Absorbance; Saturation; Beer-Lambert law; Colour; Quantum energy states; Directional emission; Photoelectric effect; Emission of polarised photons from crystals; Refraction effects; Reflection; Transparency; Birefringence; Cherenkov radiation; Bremsstrahlung and Synchrotron radiation; Phase change at reflection; Force impulse at reflection and radiation pressure; Simulated emission (Laser).

The originality of this work is the elucidation of a mechanism for how the electron responds to combinations of bonding constraint and pumped energy. The crucial insight is that the electron size and position(s) are coupled attributes of its frequency and energy, where the coupling is achieved via physical substructures. The theory is able to provide a logically coherent explanation for a wide variety of energy conversion phenomena.

Dirk Pons

Christchurch, New Zealand

15 June 2016


More information – The full paper (gold open access) is available at:

Pons, D.J., Pons, A.D., and Pons, A.J., (2016), Energy conversion mechanics for photon emission per non-local hidden-variable theory. Journal of Modern Physics, 7(10), 1049-1067.


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Why is the speed of light constant?

Why is the speed of light constant in the vacuum?

The constancy of the speed of light c in the vacuum was the key insight in Einstein’s work on relativity. However this was an assumption, rather than a proof.  It is an assumption that has worked well, in that the resulting theory has shown good agreement with many observations. The Michelson-Morley experiment directly tested the idea of Earth moving through a stationary ether, by looking for differences in the speed of light in different directions, and found no evidence to support such a theory. There is no empirical evidence that convincingly shows the speed of light to be variable in-vacuo in the vicinity of Earth. However it is possible that the speed of light is merely locally constant, and different elsewhere in the universe. In our latest  paper we show why this might be so.

Fundamental questions about light

There are several perplexing questions about light:

  • What is the underlying mechanism that makes the speed of light constant in the vacuum?
  • What properties of the universe cause the speed of light to have the value it has?
  • If the speed of light is not constant throughout the universe, what would be the mechanisms?
  • How does light move through the vacuum?
  • The vacuum has properties: electric and magnetic constants. Why, and what causes these?
  • How does light behave as both a wave and particle? (Wave-particle duality)
  • How does a photon physically  take two different paths? (Superposition in interferometers)
  • How does entanglement work at the level of the individual photon?

These are questions of fundamental physics, and of cosmology. Consequently there is on-going interest in the speed of light at the foundational level.  The difficulty is that neither general relativity nor quantum mechanics can explain why c should be constant, or why it should have the value it does. Neither for that matter does string/M theory. Gaining a better understanding of this has the potential to bridge the particle and cosmology scales of physics.

Is the speed of light really constant? Everywhere? At all times?

There has been ongoing interest in developing theories where c is not constant. These are called variable speed of light (VSL) theories [see paper for more details]. The primary purpose of these is to explore for new physics at deeper levels, with a particular interest in quantum-gravity.  For example, it may be that the invariance of c breaks down at very small scales, or for photons of different energy, though such searches have been unsuccessful to date.  Another approach is cosmological. If the speed of light was to be variable, it could solve certain problems. Specifically, the horizon, inflation and  flatness problems might be resolved if there were a faster c in the early universe, i.e. a time-varying speed of light.  There are several other possible applications for a variable speed of light theory in cosmology.

However there is one big problem:

In all existing VSL theories the difficulty is providing reasons for why c should vary with time or geometric scale.

The theories require the speed of light to be different at genesis, and then somehow change slowly or suddenly switch over at some time or event, for reasons unknown. None of the existing VSL theories describe why this should be, nor do they propose underlying mechanics. This is  problematic, and contributes to existing VSL theories not being widely accepted.

Cordus theory predicts the speed of light is variable, and attributes it to fabric density

In our paper [apr.v8n3p111] we apply the non-local hidden-variable (Cordus) theory to this problem. It turns out that it is a logical necessity of the theory that the speed of light be variable. The theory also predicts a specific underlying mechanism for this. Our findings are that the speed of light is inversely proportional to fabric density.  This is because the discrete fields of the photon interact dynamically with the fabric and therefore consume frequency cycles of the photon. The fabric arises from aggregation of discrete force emissions (fields) from massy particles, which in turn depends on the proximity and spatial distribution of matter.

This theory offers a conceptually simply way to reconcile the refraction of light in both gravitational situations and optical materials: the density of matter affects the fabric density, and hence affects the speed of light. So when light enters a denser medium, say a glass prism, then it encounters an abrupt increase in fabric density, which slows its speed. Likewise light that grazes past a star is subject to a small gradient in the fabric, hence resulting in gravitational bending of the light-path. Furthermore, the theory accommodates the constant speed of light of general relativity, as a special case of a locally constant fabric density. In other words, the fabric density is homogeneous in the vicinity of Earth, so the speed of light is also constant in this locality. However, in a different part of the universe where matter is more sparse, the speed of light is predicted to be faster. Similarly, at earlier time epochs when the universe was more dense, the speed of light would have been slower. This also means that the results disfavour the universal applicability of the cosmological principle of homogeneity and isotropy of the universe.

The originality in this paper is in proposing underlying mechanisms for the speed of light.  Uniquely, this theory identifies fabric density as the dependent variable. In contrast, other VSL models propose that c varies with time or some geometric-like scale, but struggle to provide plausible reasons for that dependency.


This theory predicts that the speed of light is inversely proportional to the fabric density, which in turn is related to the proximity of matter. The fabric fills even the vacuum of space, and the density of this fabric is what gives the electric and magnetic constants their values, and sets the speed of light. The speed of light is constant in the vicinity of Earth, because the local fabric density is relatively isotropic. This explanation also accommodates relativistic time dilation, gravitational time dilation, gravitational bending of light, and refraction of light.  So the speed of light is a variable that depends on fabric density, hence is an emergent property of the fabric.

The paper is available open access:


The fabric density concept is covered at

The corresponding theory of time, which predicts that time speeds up in situations of lower fabric density, is at



Citation for published paper:

Pons, D. J., Pons, A. D., & Pons, A. J. (2016). Speed of light as an emergent property of the fabric. Applied Physics Research, 8(3): 111-121.

Original work on physics archive (2013) :


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A New Scientist article ‘Why space has exactly three dimensions’ by Matthew Chalmers raises the ontological question of why 3-D, as opposed to something else. The article goes on to show that mathematical representations of quantum mechanics work best with three.

Our own Cordus work also provides circumstantial evidence for space having three dimensions. This arises from the requirement for particules to emit discrete forces in three directions.

Our response to the article follows:

Coming at it from a completely different direction, namely applying the design method to a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution, we also find things work out when there are three dimensions to space. In this case explaining string theory is not a big problem, because it happens that we need about the same number of internal variables to define the NLHV design, as are needed in string theory ( Entanglement and wave-particle duality are readily explained ( Obtaining unification of the electro-magneto-gravitational-strong interactions is also conceptually achievable with NLHV solutions ( As a plus, it also gives a theory for time, and thereby addresses not only space but spacetime too (accepted, preprint (Spoiler: time becomes an emergent property of matter in this theory).

I wouldn’t claim we have really addressed the deeper ontological question of why three dimensions. But we can at least show that three gives a robust and coherent NLHV solution that explains many difficult areas in fundamental physics. See Cordus on vixra for details.



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What is Space-time?

Special relativity (SR) is based on  the relativity of simultaneity, that the order in time of two spatially separate events cannot be determined  absolutely, but instead depends on the motion of the observer. Thus it is impossible to order two events in time if they occur in different places (hence difference frames of reference). There is no preferred inertial frame in SR.

English: Schematic view of Einstein's train th...

English: Schematic view of Einstein’s train thought experiment, with two lightnings striking both ends of the moving train simultaneously (as perceived in the stationary observer’s inertial frame). Event simultaneity differences are shown for both inertial frames, supported by Minkowski diagrams (not in scale). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Cordus theories of time and the fabric affirm SR’s principle of the relativity of simultaneity, that time can flow at different speeds for people in different situations. However there are some deeper implications from the Cordus perspective.

The first is that time is not an inherent property of space. Cordus rejects the General relativity (GR) idea of spacetime having a substantial dimensional status comparable to the three geometric axes, and instead sees the fabric as being the relationships between bodies.  Complementary to this is another implication, that time is a property of matter rather than space. Recall that the Cordus theory is that the fundamental level of time is the frequency oscillation of the particule, and the assembly of multiple particules.

This has a further implication that each assembly of matter has its own time (SR: frame of reference) which via the fabric blends discretely into that of other neighbouring matter. Hence the connectedness of the cordus fabric, which provides a mechanism whereby spatially separated bodies appraise each other about their position and state. This corresponds loosely to the GR concept of a smooth spacetime, except that the Cordus fabric is made up of discrete field elements that only appear to be smooth at the macroscopic level. A further implication is that spatially separate bodies have their own time, and Cordus provides a mechanism whereby that fundamental time aggregates into the physical behaviour of a clock. So the question of how time, as measured by say an atomic clock or mechanical timepiece connects to the underlying time, is answered.

This leads to another implication of the Cordus theory, which is that all the separate bodies in the universe, hence also clocks and frames of reference, were once synchronised  in the past.  The primary synchronisation was at the genesis of matter,  when matter was formed from photons. There is a Cordus explanation for this asymmetrical baryogenesis too.  As this matter separated in the formation of the universe, so it carried its clocks with it. Thus there is a branching of times (SR: frames of reference), and this also means they can all be traced back in a family tree. Therefore Cordus only conditionally supports the SP principle of relativity of simultaneity. Cordus suggests that there is a temporal relationship between different frames of reference, that the time for each body (collection of particules) represents its cumulative journey through past space and time (i.e. world-line) and that all frames can therefore be referenced back to the primal genesis event. Not that mere inspection of the matter in any one frame reveals that journey, only the sum thereof. So Cordus suggests that the temporal relationships between inertial frames of reference are not really arbitrary, but rather unapparent. Thus the relationship between two inertial clocks is not simply a convention, though it can be for convenience if the observer is willing to accept the differences as a calibration offset. While the two separate inertial clocks may each have their own time, it is generally not possible to see what this is, so the simultaneity can in practice be set by the observer’s choice. So Cordus rejects the conventionality of simultaneity in principle, but allows it in practice.

What does this mean? Well, it shows that it is possible to connect relativity (both special and general) with particle physics. We achieve this through a specific non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution called the cordus conjecture.

This integrates the apparently conflicting nature of the different times suggested by  quantum mechanics, electromagnetic theory, and relativity. Surprisingly, it is not so much that one of these theories is correct and the others wrong, but instead it is shown that they all have a piece of truth. The Cordus theory shows that time is all of particle-based vs. spacetime, relative vs. absolute, local vs. universal. However it is not simultaneously all of those, but rather depends on the level of assembly being considered. We therefore suggest that none of the existing physical theories have got time quite right, even if they are all right in part. Instead Cordus suggests that there is a deeper common causality.

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