Posts Tagged Electron

Optical phenomena involving energy conversion: Explanation based on new physics

Many optical phenomena have poor or no explanations at the level of individual photon particles. Examples are the processes of photon emission, photon absorption, phase change at reflection, and laser emissions. These are adequately described by the classical electromagnetic wave theory of light, but that applies to waves and is difficult to extend to individual particles. Quantum mechanics (QM) better represents the behaviour of individual particles, but its power of explanation is weak, i.e. it can put numbers to phenomena but its explanations cannot be grounded in physical realism. QM is unable to explain how the 0D point of the photon is absorbed into the 0D point of the electron, or how a 0D photon separates into an electron and antielectron (pair production), or how matter and antimatter annihilate back to photons.

In the paper http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2016.710094 we show how to solve this explanatory problem. We show that it is possible to explain many optical phenomena involving energy conversion. The solution involves a new physics at the sub-particle level, in the form of a non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution.

Process of photon emission from an electron

Process of photon emission from an electron

 

It has long been known that the bonding commitments of the electron affect its energy behaviour but the mechanisms for this have been elusive. We show how the degree of bonding constraint on the electron determines how it processes excess energy, see figure. A key concept is that the span and frequency of the electron are inversely proportional. This explains why energy changes cause positional distress for the electron.

Natural explanations are given for  multiple emission phenomena: Absorbance; Saturation; Beer-Lambert law; Colour; Quantum energy states; Directional emission; Photoelectric effect; Emission of polarised photons from crystals; Refraction effects; Reflection; Transparency; Birefringence; Cherenkov radiation; Bremsstrahlung and Synchrotron radiation; Phase change at reflection; Force impulse at reflection and radiation pressure; Simulated emission (Laser).

The originality of this work is the elucidation of a mechanism for how the electron responds to combinations of bonding constraint and pumped energy. The crucial insight is that the electron size and position(s) are coupled attributes of its frequency and energy, where the coupling is achieved via physical substructures. The theory is able to provide a logically coherent explanation for a wide variety of energy conversion phenomena.

Dirk Pons

Christchurch, New Zealand

15 June 2016

 

More information – The full paper (gold open access) is available at:

Pons, D.J., Pons, A.D., and Pons, A.J., (2016), Energy conversion mechanics for photon emission per non-local hidden-variable theory. Journal of Modern Physics, 7(10), 1049-1067.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2016.710094

 

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Internal mechanisms of the annihilation process

The problem

How does annihilation work? What occurs when matter and antimatter annihilate? How does an electron combine with an antielectron (positron) to disappear in a blip of photons? What is the process whereby the photons emerge from annihilation interaction? How, at the fundamental level, does mass-energy equivalence operate? (Mass-energy equivalence is the conversion of matter into energy, and the reciprocal conversion of photons into matter and antimatter, and is quantified by E=mc^2). How can something as substantial as matter be wiped out? Why does annihilation sometimes produce 2 photons, and at other times 3? No-one really knows how annihilation occurs.

A solution from the hidden sector

In our latest paper (10.5539/apr.v6n2p28) we offer an explanation for the annihilation process. This solution uses the Cordus theory, which is a specific non-local hidden-variable design, and is therefore from the hidden sector of fundamental physics (as opposed to quantum mechanics, relativity, or string theory).

This paper explains annihilation as the collapse of the discrete force structures of the electron and antielectron, and their reformation into photon structures.  The process is more one of remanufacture than destruction. The resulting Cordus theory successfully explains para- and ortho-positronium annihilation: the different photons output, the relative difference in lifetimes, and why Bhabha scattering sometimes happens instead.

Curiously, this theory suggests that annihilation is the same class of interaction as pair-creation (nothing new there), and bonding via the strong force. It suggests the mechanisms are common.

For other background reading on annihilation, see Encycl. Britannica, and Wikipedia. One can also represent the inputs and outputs in a simple Feynman diagram. However the difficulty with all these approaches is describing how the annihilation process works. This is where our design offers a solution.

Reference:

Pons DJ, Pons AD, Pons AJ (2014) Annihilation mechanisms. Applied Physics Research 6 (2):28-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/apr.v6n2p28

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Aharonov-Bohm effect explained

Cordus theory for the electron _11In the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect an enclosed magnet, one from which magnetic field cannot escape, changes the motion of an electron even though the electron passes through a magnetic-free region. The experiment involves a coherent source[1] of electrons:  one beam passes through the centre of a toroidal magnet and the other bypasses it; the electrons thereafter interfere to produce fringes at a biprism (wire with a positive charge);[2] the fringes differ depending on whether or not the magnetic flux is confined to the magnet (as opposed to leaking into the hole). The conventional explanation involves use of vector electromagnetic potentials (in place of electromagnetic fields).

The significance of this effect is that the electron is affected by a condition (magnetic field) that is some distance away from it, and to which it does not have access. Thus the principle of locality seems to be compromised, as in the case of entanglement. The results  are usually interpreted as evidence that QM’s mathematical representations of electromagnetic potentials are not simply mathematical, but are real effects. We beg to differ.

The Cordus explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect is as follows:

  1. The electron has two reactive ends a short distance apart (hence a Cordus ‘particule’).
  2. (This is important) One reactive-end of the electron goes through the toroidal magnet, and the other goes past it.
  3. The reactive-end itself does not get into the toroid but its discrete forces (fields) do.
  4. (This is important) The discrete forces penetrate the thin outer layer of the solenoid, and therefore are able to probe that space despite the electromagnetic barriers preventing the electron as a whole from entering.
  5. The discrete forces interact with the magnetic field and this causes a displacement force on the reactive-end.
  6. The wire of the biprism provides the edge-effect for the formation of fringes.

Thus the AB effect, from the Cordus perspective, is another application of the Cordus Principle of Wider Locality: that particules are affected by the conditions around them, not merely at the 0-D point. This wider sensitivity to their surroundings occurs because particules are held to have two reactive ends and discrete fields. It also shows that non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solutions have great explanatory power if one can find the right design.

References

This explanation first appeared in:

Pons, D. J., Pons, Arion. D., Pons, Ariel. M., & Pons, Aiden. J. Matter particuloids. (Cordus matter Part 3.2) viXra, 2011. 1104.0023, 1-12 DOI: http://vixra.org/abs/1104.0023.

Pons, D. J., Pons, Arion. D., Pons, Ariel. M., & Pons, Aiden. J. Wider Locality. (Cordus matter Part 3.1). viXra, 2011. 1104.0022, 1-7 DOI: http://vixra.org/abs/1104.0022.


[1]              The quantum mechanics concept of a ‘coherent’ source of light or electrons is not accepted by the Cordus theory, at least not as QM describes it. Instead the Cordus theory explains this as reactive ends from the same particule that have been split to go down two paths.

[2]              The fact that fringes in this case are associated with electromagnetic effects at the edges of objects, is consistent with the explanation for photon fringes (explained in the Cordus conjecture), which are also edge effects.

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How does an electron emit a photon?

This is one of those foundational questions that is difficult to answer.

How exactly does the photon emerge from the electron? How is light absorbed by matter?

Even asking how an electron physically emits a single photon is  a meaningless question from the zero-dimensional point perspective of quantum mechanics: it can only go so far as to explain it in terms of quantum changes in energy levels. And wave theory does not extend to single particles.

However cordus is a non-local hidden-variable solution, so it has additional variables, hence this opens up more dimensions to its available solution spaces. We have been working on this emission problem for a while, designing possible solutions. Now we have some new ideas to suggest, and recently put them out for scrutiny.

Final stage in the proposes process whereby en electron emits a photon. http://vixra.org/abs/1206.0047

We show that it is possible to develop new insights into this problem, based on the cordus model. We start by predicting the structures of the photon and electron, both the internal geometric sub-structures, and their discrete fields. Then we go on to explain how the photon is created and separated out of the electron, in terms of how the fields arise.

Now we can start to put explanations towards those fundamental questions. Q: Why exactly do electrons emit photons?

Answer: Emission of photons is an escapement mechanism whereby matter particules that are over-prescribed in position can get rid of that energy.

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