The ‘arrow of time’ refers to the one-way nature of time. Special and General relativity considers time to be a dimension, as in ‘spacetime’, in which case we should be able to go forward and backward in time, just like we can in the x, y, and z directions of space. But we can’t. Time does not behave like a full dimension. True, we move forward in time, but it is more that time drags us onwards than us voluntary moving forward. Nor can we move backwards in time. We can’t even stay still! We are forced forward along.
So, where does this irreversibility arise? After all, the fundamental physics says that it should be a two-way effect. This is one of the unsolved problems of physics, and has occupied many physicists, thermodynamicists, and philosophers. To be sure, there are a number of solutions, but they are only partial and there is no complete solution.
Here is the solution we have found within the Cordus theory. Remember that the Cordus conjecture is a non-local hidden-variable solution, which means that it proposes that particles have internal structures. By comparision all of conventional physics including quantum mechanics is buit on the assumption that particles are merely zero dimensional points without substance.
The Cordus theory for time proposes that Decoherence is the root cause of the Arrow.
Coherence, according to the Cordus theory, is two or more particles synchronising their frequencies using the strong force, and this also requires a particular and consistent geometric arrangement. Thus time in coherent bodies, like superfluids and Bose-Einstein condensates, is proposed to be one single time pulse for the whole body. However, when decoherence occurs, the individual particules are no longer synchronised and instead bond with the much less precise electrostatic force.
Specifically, we propose that the Arrow of Time arises because decoherence causes a time delay to be inserted into the functional interac
tion of two or more domains (objects) of matter – whether or not those domains are individually coherent. This because the frequencies of the fundamental particules differ, so the faster oscillating domain will have to mark more ticks (hence more of its local time) before the slower responds. Since there is geometric separation, however small, then the finite speed of field propagation (c, speed of light) adds a further time delay. Consequently the one domain generally has done something different, e.g. responded to a third domain, before the second has fully responded. Therefore getting domains back into their initial positions becomes unlikely and statistically impossible as the number of participating domains increases. So what happens stays happened, and does not naturally self-repair. We sum this up as follows:
Decoherent assembly time is irreversible, hence the arrow of time arises at this level. This is because the interaction between subassemblies is practically irreversible due to intervening changes, propagation delays, and the complexity of large number of participating particules. This is also where and why entropy arises.
Hence classical mechanics and decoherence arise at the same point in the assembly tree of matter. The macroscopic perception of time arises at the same point, as does entropy.
While reversibility seems feasible at simple levels, we never see this for macroscopic bodies. This is because such bodies are decoherent. More accurately, their relationship with their external environment is decoherent even if their internal bonding arrangements are coherent.
Macroscopic bodies invariably have decoherent relationships between them. Such bodies, regardless of whether they are internally governed by coherent or decoherent relationships (bonds), interact inelastically with their environment, in that such bodies do not return to precisely their initial states. Inability for one body to return thereby means that all the other bodies in the accessible universe cannot either, because the fabric of background discrete forces has been changed.
Read more about the Cordus time theory here:
Pons, D.J. (2013) What really is time? A multiple-level ontological theory for time as a property of matter. vixra, 1-40 DOI: http://vixra.org/abs/1301.0074.
- Is time a dimension? (cordus.wordpress.com)
- Pons, D.J. (2012) Limits of Coherence: Where and Why is the Transition to Discoherence? vixra 1201.0043, p. 1-12. Available from: http://vixra.org/abs/1201.0043
- Pons, D.J., Pons, Arion. D., Pons, Ariel. M., & Pons, Aiden. J., Wave-particle duality: A conceptual solution from the cordus conjecture. Physics Essays, 2012. 25(1): p. 132-140. DOI: http://physicsessays.org/doi/abs/10.4006/0836-1398-25.1.132. Available from: http://vixra.org/abs/1106.0027.