According to the Cordus theory, time is not a dimension. It is not a ratio variable. Nor can it be traversed backwards and forwards like a position in space. It is neither smooth nor infinitely sub-divisible. It only looks that way when viewed from a sufficiently high level of assembly, hence the approximations of the classical mechanics and of spacetime. In the Cordus view, time is more like a patchwork of cause-and-effect ratchets between sub-microscopic domains.

The way matter interacts with matter via discrete electro-magnetic-gravitational (EMG) forces, causes the matter particules to move into different states (e.g. a new position in space) at each frequency cycle. These interactions are irreversible, because each particule that moves out of its previous position changes the whole universe around it (its future light cone) because it is now emitting discrete fields from a new position. This is where the arrow of time arises. Hence time arises as ratchets of irreversible disturbances between particules. We can then show how this aggregates to time at the atomic level, and then to our macroscopic level. So in this model time is an emergent property of discoherent matter.

Read more here:

Pons, D.J. (2013) What really is time? A multiple-level ontological theory for time as a property of matter. vixra, 1-40 DOI: http://vixra.org/abs/1301.0074.

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- Revisiting Special Relativity: A Natural Algebraic Alternative to Minkowski Spacetime (plosone.org) [This article shows how Clifford alegebra can be used to model spacetime as a multivector. Specifically, they include a rotating bivector. Then they ‘interpret time as an angular rotation at the de Broglie frequency’ of the particle. We suggest this is a consistent with the Cordus interpretation of time. Both approaches state that time is fundamentally generated by the frequency of the particle. ]