## What is Space-time?

Special relativity (SR) is based on  the relativity of simultaneity, that the order in time of two spatially separate events cannot be determined  absolutely, but instead depends on the motion of the observer. Thus it is impossible to order two events in time if they occur in different places (hence difference frames of reference). There is no preferred inertial frame in SR.

English: Schematic view of Einstein’s train thought experiment, with two lightnings striking both ends of the moving train simultaneously (as perceived in the stationary observer’s inertial frame). Event simultaneity differences are shown for both inertial frames, supported by Minkowski diagrams (not in scale). (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Cordus theories of time and the fabric affirm SR’s principle of the relativity of simultaneity, that time can flow at different speeds for people in different situations. However there are some deeper implications from the Cordus perspective.

The first is that time is not an inherent property of space. Cordus rejects the General relativity (GR) idea of spacetime having a substantial dimensional status comparable to the three geometric axes, and instead sees the fabric as being the relationships between bodies.  Complementary to this is another implication, that time is a property of matter rather than space. Recall that the Cordus theory is that the fundamental level of time is the frequency oscillation of the particule, and the assembly of multiple particules.

This has a further implication that each assembly of matter has its own time (SR: frame of reference) which via the fabric blends discretely into that of other neighbouring matter. Hence the connectedness of the cordus fabric, which provides a mechanism whereby spatially separated bodies appraise each other about their position and state. This corresponds loosely to the GR concept of a smooth spacetime, except that the Cordus fabric is made up of discrete field elements that only appear to be smooth at the macroscopic level. A further implication is that spatially separate bodies have their own time, and Cordus provides a mechanism whereby that fundamental time aggregates into the physical behaviour of a clock. So the question of how time, as measured by say an atomic clock or mechanical timepiece connects to the underlying time, is answered.

This leads to another implication of the Cordus theory, which is that all the separate bodies in the universe, hence also clocks and frames of reference, were once synchronised  in the past.  The primary synchronisation was at the genesis of matter,  when matter was formed from photons. There is a Cordus explanation for this asymmetrical baryogenesis too.  As this matter separated in the formation of the universe, so it carried its clocks with it. Thus there is a branching of times (SR: frames of reference), and this also means they can all be traced back in a family tree. Therefore Cordus only conditionally supports the SP principle of relativity of simultaneity. Cordus suggests that there is a temporal relationship between different frames of reference, that the time for each body (collection of particules) represents its cumulative journey through past space and time (i.e. world-line) and that all frames can therefore be referenced back to the primal genesis event. Not that mere inspection of the matter in any one frame reveals that journey, only the sum thereof. So Cordus suggests that the temporal relationships between inertial frames of reference are not really arbitrary, but rather unapparent. Thus the relationship between two inertial clocks is not simply a convention, though it can be for convenience if the observer is willing to accept the differences as a calibration offset. While the two separate inertial clocks may each have their own time, it is generally not possible to see what this is, so the simultaneity can in practice be set by the observer’s choice. So Cordus rejects the conventionality of simultaneity in principle, but allows it in practice.

What does this mean? Well, it shows that it is possible to connect relativity (both special and general) with particle physics. We achieve this through a specific non-local hidden-variable (NLHV) solution called the cordus conjecture.

This integrates the apparently conflicting nature of the different times suggested by  quantum mechanics, electromagnetic theory, and relativity. Surprisingly, it is not so much that one of these theories is correct and the others wrong, but instead it is shown that they all have a piece of truth. The Cordus theory shows that time is all of particle-based vs. spacetime, relative vs. absolute, local vs. universal. However it is not simultaneously all of those, but rather depends on the level of assembly being considered. We therefore suggest that none of the existing physical theories have got time quite right, even if they are all right in part. Instead Cordus suggests that there is a deeper common causality.